(1995), for example, identified the presence of switchbacks as a synapomorphy
of higher araneoids, but did not attempt to make further specific homology statements.
The Cacteae dade is supported (b86/j83% and b70/ j67%) by various structural features, but only one of them, the occurrence of a disjunct hilum and micropyle in their seeds (63), is a synapomorphy
. The uniqueness of this feature was pointed out by Barthlott and Voit (1979) and is considered one of the key characters that defines the tribe (Anderson, 2001).
Early inversion of anthers in the bud is the morphological synapomorphy
(unique) for the large dade that includes Ericoideae, Styphelioideae, and Vaccinioideae (in contrast to the late anther inversion present in Arbutoideae and Monotropoideae).
The accelerated transformation alternative (ACCTRAN) optimizes the CBP denticles (character 61) as a synapomorphy
for Leucauge + (Sancus + tetragnathines) (Fig.
This appears to be a cycad synapomorphy
(Stevenson, 1990b), and thus any fossil with such perforations can be considered a cycad.
these three taxa have is a bract-scale complex in which the bract is large and contains many vascular strands and the scale is relatively small.
Ehrhartoideae is sister of the clade that consists of Brachyelytrum, Pooideae, and the PACC clade, and the change from three to two lodicules is a synapomorphy
of this set of four lineages [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 5 OMITTED].
The sister-group constellation Notasteron-Storosa is based on the sternum with posterior boss taken as a synapomorphy
This character is very common among Ischnocolinae although it does not represent a synapomorphy
for this group.
The embryo of tribe Trilepideae is well characterised by a prominent invagination over the coleoptile, which represents a synapomorphy
for the tribe.
(1991), where taxons considered were related based on shared derivative characters (synapomorphy