Figure 2 depicts more details concerning both the sylvatic
and urban cycles of the ZIKV (24) and also of the potential modes of human to human transmission of the virus.
As an addition to this model, an equation describing wild populations of vectors (sylvatic
) and transfer to the domicile from these populations is included.
cycle involves viral transmission between forest mosquitoes and non-human primates such as monkeys and up to some extent rodents.
mosquitoes and the transmission cycle of this virus may shift from sylvatic
to urban, using humans as amplifying hosts, and then establishing new outbreaks in Brazil, since the majority of the Brazilian population is susceptible to MAYV infection.
The National Institute of Health of Colombia has reported a considerable number of cases of sylvatic
rabies transmitted by bats since 2000.
Also, it is important to emphasize that these species are exclusively found in sylvatic
environment (Forattini, 2002).
Chuang et al., "Emergence of a sylvatic
enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses," Veterinary Microbiology, vol.
These ferrets are currently endangered due to the sylvatic
plague infecting their primary food source, prairie dogs.
This wide range of arthropod vectors in Africa that can host ZIKV demonstrates that the virus is well adapted to different mosquito genera, which can play an important role during sylvatic
and urban ZIKV cycles in Africa (Figure 2).
WHO said Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic
Life history studies on two molecular strains of Mesocestoides (Cestoda: Mesocestoides): identification of sylvatic
hosts and infectivity of immature life stages.