(A,C) Differentiated BMMSCs that cultured with Sustentacular cell
condition medium were positive for Mvh (after 1 week) and Scp3 (after 3 weeks) (green color) and nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue color).
The chief cells are positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin, and the sustentacular cells
are positive for S100.
It has been identified in sustentacular cells
of autonomous ganglia, adrenal medullas and extra-adrenal paraganglia.
(2,8) Sustentacular cells
of paragangliomas stain strongly for S-100 protein, (2,8) but this staining pattern is not seen in NECs because of their lack of sustentacular cells
The olfactory epithelium contains three cell types, which can be histologically identified in the tumor: basal cells, olfactory neurosensory cells, and supporting sustentacular cells
. The basal cells are the stem cell compartment, continuously replacing the neurosensory cells throughout adult life; both physiologically and as a response to injury.
(1) Paragangliomas are tumors of neural crest origin that are made up of chief and sustentacular cells
surrounded by stroma (2); they account for 0.6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck.
The first is positive for neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin and shows positivity for S100 in the sustentacular cells
. In addition, primary paragangliomas are almost never seen in the limbs.
The chief cells are strongly and diffusely immunoreactive with chromogranin and synaptophysin, while the supporting sustentacular cells
react with S-100 protein (figure 2).
(4) The tumor is composed of 2 cell types: chief cells, which have pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei, and finely granular chromatin, and sustentacular cells
, which have spindled-shaped nuclei and scant cytoplasm (Figure 3).
The outer rows of nuclei belong to sustentacular cells
The cells were synaptophysin-positive, and the sustentacular cells
were highlighted on S-l00 and glial fibrillary acidic protein staining.
In lung and intestinal carcinoid tumors, a few sustentacular cells
were positive for SOX10, but neoplastic cells appeared negative (Figure 6, D).