The following results, presented in Tables I, II, III, refer to the data obtained through karyometry of testicular cells nuclei (interstitial, sustentacular
and spermatogonias) from suckling rats, whose dams were submitted to ofloxacin.
Thus, based on the zell ballen architectural pattern with strong immunoreactivity to CD56 and synaptophysin with sustentacular
cell pattern of immunoreactivity to S100 protein confirmed the diagnosis of a paratesticular paraganglioma.
The control negative group (200x; H&E) has normal cyto-architecture, reveal interstitial tissues (IT) and seminiferous tubules (ST) with sustentacular
cells and the normal developing germ cells: spermatogonia (Sp), spermatocytes I (SPI), spermatids (Spt), spermatozoa (Spz) with flagellum.
A, Centrally located chief cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm surrounded by peripherally located slender, spindled sustentacular
cells forming a nested (Zellballen) pattern separated by a prominent vascular network.
As a result, the team was able to trace the paths that cells take as they turn into sustentacular
cells - which seems to be the default fate for olfactory stem cells - and into neurons and other types of cells.
S100 immunohistochemistry highlighted sustentacular
cells, consistent with a paraganglioma.
Histological sections revealed typical morphological features of PCC predominantly characterized by nests of plump tumor cells with abundant basophilic granular cytoplasm surrounded by sustentacular
cells (Figure 4(a)).
Differential diagnosis Immunohistochemistry Clear-cell renal- PAX8 +; CAIX +, inhibin - cell carcinoma Paraganglioma/ Chromogranin +, synaptophysin +, pheochromocytoma S100 + (sustentacular
cells) Adrenal cortical MART-1 +, calretinin +, inhibin +, Melan carcinoma A +, CAM 5.2 + (30% of cases) Solitary STAT-6+ fibrous tumor
The nests of tumor cells (zellballen pattern) are separated by sustentacular
cells ((a) x200; (b) x400).
It has been reported that intranasal instillation of ATP enhances the expression of NPY in olfactory epithelium sustentacular
and microvillous cells via P2 purinergic receptors and NPY stimulates the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells through Y1 receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation [49, 50].
Three possible pathways have been suggested: a) transcellular transport across sustentacular
cells of the olfactory epithelium, b) paracellular transport through junctions of the olfactory epithelium, or c) intracellular transport through axonal movement via olfactory nerve fascicles to the synaptic junctions within the OB (Illum 2000; Shepherd 1994).
Protein S100 highlights the sustentacular
and tumor cells, which is in accordance with our case.