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a strategy that directs a researcher in planning and implementing a study in a way that is most likely to achieve the intended goal.
case study design an investigation strategy involving extensive exploration of a single unit of study, which may be a person, family, group, community, or institution, or a very small number of subjects who are examined intensively. The number of variables is usually very large.
cohort design longitudinal design.
cross-sectional design a research strategy in which one or more group(s) of subjects are studied at one given point in time.
experimental design a research design that eliminates all factors that influence outcome except for the cause being studied (independent variable). All other factors are controlled by randomization, investigator-controlled manipulation of the independent variable, and control of the study situation by the investigator, including the use of control groups.
longitudinal design a research strategy in which one or more group(s) of subjects in various stages of development are examined simultaneously with the intent of inferring trends over time. The assumption is that the phenomenon under study progresses with time. Called also cohort design.
methodological design a process used to develop the validity and reliability of instruments to measure constructs used as variables in research.
nonequivalent control group design a study design in which the control group is not selected by random means.
partial correlation design a design developed to eliminate the influence of a third variable on a relational pattern by holding it constant mathematically, so that the magnitude of the relationship between the two remaining variables can be determined.
path analysis design a design to determine the accuracy of a theoretical model: a hypothesized causal model is developed from the theoretical model and the major variables within it are measured and relationships among them determined; regression analysis is used to determine whether the data are consistent with the model.
survey design a design in which data are collected with questionnaires or through personal interviews with members of an identified population.
time dimensional design an investigation strategy for the examination of sequence and patterns of change, growth, or trends across time; see also prospective study and retrospective study.
trend design a research strategy to examine changes in the general population in relation to a particular phenomenon by means of data collected at predetermined intervals of time from different samples selected from the general population.


(1) See Design configuration (clinical trials).
(2) A design for an application to support an action on electronic records (eClinical trials).


See Double-masked design, Enrichment design, Experimental design, Masked study design, Open design, Rational molecular design, Single-masked design, Structure-based design, Universal design, Zelen design.


1. To devise, plan, or contrive.
2. the act or result of designing.
[L. designo, to appoint, designate]

Patient discussion about design

Q. Alcohol designator Order? What is an Alcohol designator Order?

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Q. How to design and run a Ambulance Service effectively. Different Models, Costs, Safety features, Planning, Strategy, Promotions, Partnerships, Risks etc...

A. Hmm... this website ( ) contains a lot of information about how to run an ambulance service, from addresses to fee tables.

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References in periodicals archive ?
We compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naive estimate (ignoring both survey design elements and propensity scores), weighted regression accounting for survey design elements, propensity score methods (ignoring survey weights and survey strata), and propensity score methods accounting for survey design elements.
From international influences on the nature and progress of African wars to democratic progress on the continent, peacebuilding efforts, and political interactions, this is a solid survey designed for college-level readers of African history and culture who would understand Africa's interactions on a global scale.
* The New Jersey War Related Illness and Injury Study Center (WRIISC) has created a survey designed to help better understand the problems and needs of Persian Gulf War veterans.
NLC is pleased to be a partner with the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging (n4a) in a survey designed to assess the "aging readiness" of our nation's cities and counties.
A community health survey designed to explore health concerns among residents of the reserve is in progress, including information on potential covariates that may influence the sex ratio, such as parental age or smoking.
Dairy producers are being invited by the Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers to participate in a survey designed to determine the true value of their own labour and to help them to negotiate a better milk price.
Dairy producers are being invited by the Royal Association of British Dairy Farmers to participate in a national survey designed to determine the true value of their own labour and ultimately to help them negotiate a better milk price.
Margaret Chaplan (library director) and Edward Hertenstein (assistant professor) at the Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, describe the findings of their survey designed to assess the information needs of union officials throughout the Midwest.
They also contributed to a survey designed to reflect the feelings of residents whose homes may be under threat.
A mammoth sky survey designed to map the location of more than 1 million galaxies and 100,000 distant quasars has uncovered two extremely faint objects--right in our own astronomical backyard.
The details are contained in the Deloitte & Touche Fast 50 survey designed to raise the profile of high-tech companies in six areas across the UK.
A market-research survey designed to improve marketing strategies to the 11- to 19-year-old age group leads to several key conclusions about teenagers: "There is more homogeneity across borders than there is between teens, of different ages in the same country.

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