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Plot (a) depicts the Q-Q plot before performing surrogate variable adjustment (lambda = 0.978) and (b) after performing surrogate variable adjustment (lambda = 1.0006).
Surrogate variable analysis is used for identifying, estimating, and incorporating sources of variation in gene expression and DNA methylation analysis [27, 28].
This simple manipulation of the lighting and equipment typical load shapes, which reflects the strong correlation between the occupancy and the lighting and equipment loads, produced profiles reasonably similar to the occupancy profiles obtained by the walk-through survey, which suggests accepting the results of a surrogate variable for the true occupancy variable.
The first approach involves measuring a surrogate variable of operating risk, and the second approach involves an analysis of fixed costs that provides a surrogate Beta risk measure for the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) computation of cost of capital.
The best available surrogate variable was selected for the replication model when the variables in the model were not exactly duplicatable.(1) Variables were regressed against retail sales price using the same three models as LRL--a linear, a double-log, and a Box-Cox model.
f) By starting with the initial values [[mu].sub.j.sup.o], we upgrade their values step by step and find the corresponding values of the surrogate variables [y.sub.i] and hence original variables [x.sub.i] (i = 1, 2, ..., n).
Current exposure to TNF inhibitors, as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate or other DMARDs, was compared with methotrexate monotherapy, and all analyses were adjusted for multiple potentially confounding risk factors including surrogate variables for smoking and dyslipidemia.
Population density and land use data was also used as surrogate variables to quantify contaminant loading.
Soil subgroup, site type, depth of O horizon, depth of A horizon and number of fallen dead trees were chosen as surrogate variables for nutrient availability.
It is the use of "surrogate variables" to describe/ assess other variables that cannot be described/assessed directly for any of several reasons; for instance, the use of "market share" as a surrogate for "profitability" when trying to assess the performance of the businesses being studied.