ADT--which includes surgical castration
(orchiectomy), chemical castration (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists or antagonists) and/or anti-androgen treatment to reduce serum testosterone levels to a minimum (<50 ng/dl) (6)--demonstrates a good initial response in androgen-sensitive PCa, including a significant biochemical response (80-90% serum prostate-specific antigen [PSA] reduction) and clinical regression of the disease.
Jehonathan Pinthus and colleagues presented research in animal models, suggesting possible differences between surgical castration
, a GnRH antagonist (degarelix) and a GnRH analogue (enantone) with respect to weight gain, development of the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis.[sup.3] The hypothesis was that GnRH antagonists, which maximally inhibit follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, would be associated with reduced adiposity, the development of metabolic syndrome and CV disease compared to GnRH analogues and orchiectomy.
Several studies have demonstrated that testosterone levels are usually 20 ng/dL or lower after surgical castration
Mr Gean said he was not aware of a surgical castration
sentence being carried out before in the United States.
This is time-limited, so if it does not have the desired effect, you are unlikely to get the desired effect from surgical castration
To further prove this point, researchers in the United States and abroad also found (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/11/us/politics/chemical-castration.html) substantially lower recidivism levels among people who had surgical castration
procedures, as opposed to people who were released from custody without any such treatments.
Historically, removal of the testes (surgical castration
) had been the only effective way to reliably lower testosterone.
Another algiogenic factor is substance P, which was characterized as an important indicator of pain and discomfort in livestock, because plasma concentrations of substance P were significantly higher 40min after surgical castration
in calves (506.4pg/mL) than in control calves (386.4pg/mL) (COETZEE et al., 2008).
Maybe, despite the furore, the Westminster government will re-write the law to allow persons with a penis and no intention of completing transition via surgical castration
to call themselves a "woman" and invade spaces currently reserved to women.
Nowadays an alternative in our country is the use of temporary immunological castration, characterized by the anti-GnRH immunization, which eliminates the inconvenient of surgical castration
. Immunocastration has emerged as an alternative to surgical castration
in different animal species, in order to improve animal welfare (Siel et al., 2016).