surface water


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surface water

The water on the earth’s surface, as in lakes, rivers, reservoirs, oceans, etc. (in contrast to groundwater and atmospheric water).
References in periodicals archive ?
The Wadi Dayqah independent water project includes the development, financing, design, engineering, construction, ownership, operation and maintenance of a surface water treatment plant.
These fees are based on groundwater withdrawals and, like the surface water fees for city customers, have also steadily increased to the current $1.75 per 1,000 gallons.
The discharge or overflow from these lands flows directly into surface water bodies.
But the country has no efficient technology to use the surface water for irrigation.
Particularly important under the SGMA regulations is the interaction between groundwater and surface water: how do groundwater management decisions -- by individual landowners or by groundwater sustainability agencies (GSAs) -- impact not only beneficial users, but also streams (Zume and Tarhule 2011) and ground-water-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) (Boulton and Hancock 2006; Hatton 1998).
Groundwater and surface water are often called "the hidden assets" because they fulfill various diverse functions of all humankind and are readily assessable freshwater sources in earth crust, making up 97 % all freshwater reservoirs.
NASA has selected Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) of Hawthorne, California, to provide launch services for the agency's surface water and ocean topography (SWOT) mission, the company said.
The SWD charge is levied by United Utilities for the removal of surface water to prevent streets and homes from flooding.
In the dissertation for his doctorate degree at the University of Amsterdam in 2015, Delsman identifies the processes and physiographic factors controlling the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of the exfiltration of saline groundwater to surface water and hence the contribution of saline groundwater to surface water salinity.
71 groups of water samples were collected from the coal-mining district in 2008, 2010 and 2011, including surface water samples, spring samples of Mount Taihang, deep karst groundwater, deep fissure water and shallow pore water.
Between 2015 and 2019, the West Harris County Regional Water Authority (WHCRWA) plans to allocate $1,13 billion in bond funding toward the completion of four water pipeline projects, aimed to help the authority reach surface water usage goals mandated by the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District.
Northumbrian Water, North Tyneside Council and the Environment Agency have worked together on the proposed project, which will reduce the likelihood of flooding in Killingworth and Longbenton by removing surface water from the sewer network.

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