The drug is suramin
, a century-old medicine for sleeping sickness.
The treatment results showed that Suramin
was the most effective drug curing 75% Trypanosomiasis cases, Isometamidium chloride and Diminazine di aceturate cured 50% and 37.5%, respectively.
The mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 3 ~ 5 mice) as follows: (i) mice sensitized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and challenged with OVA (control group); (ii) mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS and challenged with OVA (asthma group); (iii) mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS and treated with 20 [micro]L PBS at 30 min before the same challenge with OVA (vehicle group); and (iv) mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS and treated with suramin
(Sigma-Aldrich) at 30 min before the same challenge with OVA (suramin
The inhibition by the treatments with suramin
(P2-receptor antagonist, 100 [micro]M), apyrase (ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, 20 U/mL), and CBX (hemichannel blocker, 100 [micro]M) suggested the contribution of ATP signaling in this process.
brucei Mb1 4 31 13 Mb2 >64 >64 32 Mb3 16 34 >64 Chloroquine 0.047 [micro]M Suramin
0.035 [micro]M Benznidazole 2.0 [micro]M MRC-5 Fractions [IC.sub.50] ([micro]g/ml) Mb1 32 Mb2 >64 Mb3 33 Chloroquine Suramin
Benznidazole Table 2: Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients on day 0.
Prevention of muscle fibrosis and myonecrosis in mdx mice by suramin
, a TGF-[beta]1 blocker.
(+)-Lichesterinic acid 3 isolated from Cetraria islandica has a significant inhibitory activity on the growth of Trypanosoma brucei with an MIC value of 6.30 [micro]M compared to suramin
(MIC = 10 [micro]M) as a positive reference (Igoli et al.
Two matriptase activation inducers such as lysophospholipid-derivative, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and polyanionic compound, suramin
, were found to act cell-type specifically .
inhibits bFGF induced endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane.
Anti-adhering and anti-migratory compounds ilomastat (a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor), naphtyl urea suramin
,  salmosin (a disintegrin),  mibefradil (Ca- channel inhibitor),  RGD peptide, EDTA,  and coating an acrylic IOL surface with MPC polymer; 
Another well-known drug, suramin
, has been medically used for the treatment of African sleeping sickness since early 20th century and is an ATP mediator.
Naviaux, MD tested the effect of suramin
, used to treat trypanosomiasis or African sleeping sickness, a parasitic disease and found that suramin
blocked the extracellular signaling pathway used by ATP and other mitokines in a mouse model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ending the cell danger response and related inflammation.