The ligamentous structures contributing to iliolumbosacral stability include the supraspinous ligament
, ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament, iliolumbar ligament, lateral lumbosacral ligament, and the facet joint capsule.
The posterior supraspinous ligament
, interspinous ligament, spinous process, and the left side structures were retained.
Exposure of the rostral and caudal spinous processes was done by routine subperiosteal dissection with preservation of the supraspinous ligament
for later anatomical closure.
When the laminectomy was performed, however, removal of the posterior elements, including the vertebral arches, supraspinous ligament
and interspinal ligament, reduced the stability of the lumbar spine.
In the midline technique, the needle is inserted below the lower edge of the spinous process of the selected upper vertebrae and passes through the skin, subcutaneous tissue, supraspinous ligament
, interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum as well as the epidural space until it reaches dura arachnoids and pierces it.
"I have no idea what happened, but he suffered a major trauma to his supraspinous ligament
while at livery away from home.
A larger gauge introducer (usually 18 or 19 gauge) passed through the skin and into the supraspinous ligament
helps guide the anesthesia needle, and eases passage of the needle through the tougher structures of the skin and ligament (Figure).
Ligaments Cross-sectional area ([mm.sup.2]) Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) 20.0 Anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) 63.7 Ligamentum flavum (LF) 40.0 Capsular ligament (CL) 30.0 Intertransverse ligament (ITL) 1.8 Interspinous ligament (ISL) 40.0 Supraspinous ligament
(SSL) 30.0 TABLE 2: Material properties of the components in the osseoligamentous lumbar spine model.
4 and 5) interspinous space Loss of normal low signal intensity of the ligamenta flava or supraspinous ligaments
on T1 and T2 2.
Caption: Figure 2: The anatomic sites for pressure pain threshold evaluations over the muscles, patellar tendon, pes anserinus bursae, and supraspinous ligaments
in the anterior, posterior, and lateral views.
CT/MRI showed myositic changes involving the left gluteal region and calcification of interspinous and supraspinous ligaments
in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine (Fig 3).
The obvious long midline skin incisions are given and it continued down up to the coccyx with dissection of paravertebral muscle and soft tissue laterally and bilateral laminectomy is done with a bone nibbler interspinous and supraspinous ligaments