UIV: upper instrumented vertebrae; SSL: supraspinal
: ISL: interspinal.
In the hot plate and tail immersion tests, pain is generated by thermal stimuli; these tests are frequently used in central analgesic effect studies to measure supraspinal
and spinal responses, respectively (24).
Central sensitization of the trigeminal and somatic nociceptive systems in medication overuse headache mainly involves cerebral supraspinal
(5) The supraspinal
distribution of [mu]-, [delta]-, and [kappa]-opioid receptors has been described in the pigeon (Columba livia) and the chicken by using specific radiomarked ligands and autoradiographic receptor binding techniques.
The analgesic effect of paracetamol partly emerges through supraspinal
activation of descending serotonergic pathways, but its primary site of action may still be selective with variable inhibition of prostaglandin production (12).
Mechanism(s) responsible for incomplete voluntary muscle activation is uncertain, but joint afferent information altering motoneuron drive at spinal or supraspinal
levels may be principal causes.
This may be attributed to the differential effects of morphine on spinal and supraspinal
Plasticity in ascending long propriospinal and descending supraspinal
pathways in chronic cervical spinal cord injured rats.
reflex is elicited by hot plate method while the tail immersion test demonstrates the spinal reflex by stimulating various types of opiods receptors (Chapman et al., 1985).To evaluate central analgesic effect of the plant, hot plate and tail immersion assays were used.
The percentage of body fat (%BF) was calculated via the Carter equation (Carter et al., 1982), which was specifically designed for athletes, as follows: male %BF= ([sigma]6 skinfolds x 0.1051) + 2.58; and female %BF= ([sigma]6 skinfolds x 0.1548) + 3.58, incorporating six cutaneous folds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinal
, abdominal, anterior thigh and medial calf).
We also identified no significant differences in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure, triceptal, biceptal, supraspinal
, and subscapular skinfold thickness, total body fat, total body water, hip circumference, waist circumference, and hip-waist ratio between OB and non-OB individuals with respect to FSTL1 levels.
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) dysfunction is a direct consequence of spinal cord injury and is due to loss of supraspinal