suprasegmental

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suprasegmental

(soo″pră-sĕg-mĕn′tăl) [″ + segmentum, segment]
Located above the segmented portion.
References in periodicals archive ?
Several textbook writers have attended to research that indicates the importance of suprasegmentals to intelligibility and comprehensibility.
Yet according to all accounts, English language education in China does not deal with suprasegmental aspects of English pronunciation, nor really with spoken intelligibility at all (Deterding 2010; Robertson 2003).
To complement this, there are specific materials to teach suprasegmental features (Anderson-Hsieh, 1990).
Many factors may influence a native speaker's judgment of a second or foreign language (FL) learner's accent including suprasegmental features such as stress, rhythm, and intonation (Munro, 1995).
This is an obvious instance of the suprasegmental of timing that marks syntactically self-standing units of the discourse.
In the last two decades, there has been a shift from focusing primarily on segmentals to a greater emphasis on suprasegmentals in many pedagogical materials.
This spreading out of resources, however, has meant that some chapters are stronger than others: Duanmu is at his best discussing tone, stress, domain and related suprasegmental phenomena, and is less proficient in providing phonetic description, typological affiliations, and historical and sociolinguistic background, which is not a big fault considering the focus of the book is theoretical phonology.
Five themes recur most frequently in relevant literatures: (a) integration of pronunciation in the English language-learning curriculum (Brown, 2008; Derwing & Munro, 2005; Levis & Grant, 2003); (b) assessment of speech intelligibility (Levis, 2006); (c) a shifting list of phonological hierarchies that alternate between either suprasegmentals or segmentals as priorities (Jenkins, 2002, 2007; Levis & Grant, 2003; Murphy, 2004); (d) target pronunciation models such as providing learners with a variety of NS and/or NNS models (Pickering, 2006; Scales, Wennerstrom, Richard, & Wu, 2006); and (e) setting realistic goals for learners (Goodwin, 2001).
And given his descriptive confusion among the different levels of segmental phonology, not to mention his conflation of language and orthography, it comes as no surprise to learn that D's treatment of the language's admittedly involved and much-mooted suprasegmentals is even less lucid.
Its written records give us data only about its segmental phonology (vowels, consonants), but tell us nothing about its stress, tone, pitch, or other presumably related suprasegmentals.
The two types of sound in language--segmental (the sound of phonemes) and suprasegmental (the pitch, stress, and duration with which phonemes are sounded)--correspond to two types of meaning: one determined by signification in the Saussurean sense and the other determined by intonation.
intonation, stress, and other suprasegmental features of language, but