Gill rakers long, the longest equal to length of longest gill filaments, nearly half orbit diameter in holotype, (8 + 20 (7-9, rarely 9) + 19-21, rarely 21); branchiostegal rays 6; supraneural
(predorsal) bones 3; vertebrae 26.
Identifications of species were based on morphological criteria available in the literature and included presence of epidermal villi, depth of caudal-fin fork, contact between supraoccipital and supraneural
bones, basal length of anal fin in relation to length of head, profile of distal margin of anal fin, basal length of anal fin, number of anal-fin rays, length of dorsal spine, and number of gill rakers (Rutter, 1896; Minckley, 1973; Lundberg, 1992; Miller et al.
For many species of bryozoans, sperm enter the maternal zooid via an opening at the base of the lophophore--a supraneural
pore or the intertentacular organ (ITO) depending on the species (Temkin, 1994).
The anterior dorsal-fin pterygiophore formula indicates the interdigitation pattern of supraneurals
and pterygiophores within interneural spaces; neural spines are indicated by slashes, supraneural
(predorsal) bones by an "S," pterygiophores by "2" (pterygiophores with two supernumerary rays and a serially associated ray) or "1" (no supernumerary ray and one serially associated ray).
Lower 7 pectoral rays unbranched and 5 thickened; first 2 supraneural
bones in space before second neural spine; more than 40 cirri in 2 series on posterior flap of anterior nostril 4b.
distribuidos entre la 5 y 12va espina neural, del 2 al 7 delgados, alargados y de estructura osea con el extremo dorsal cartilaginoso; los supraneurales
1 y 8 son reducidos, el supraneural
1 de estructura cartilaginosa y el 8 oseo.
In species without ITOs, the supraneural
pore, which represents the proximal pore of the ITO, has been hypothesized to serve as the entryway for sperm into the maternal coelom (see Silen, 1966).
Configurations of the supraneural
(predorsal) bones are given in the notation of Ahlstrom et al.
Dorsal fin X or XI, 16 or 17; anal fin III, 16; pectoral fin 19 or 20; Caudal fin: procurrent rays 4 + 4-5, segmented rays 8 + 8, middle 12 branched, total elements 24 of 25; fifth hypural present or absent Vertebrae: 10 + 19; last pleural rib on vertebra 10; epineural ribs 12; one supraneural
Oocytes are transferred from the visceral coelom into the ITO via the supraneural
Formula for configuration of supraneural
bones, anterior neural spines and anterior dorsal pterygiophores 0/0/2/1 + 1/1/ (using notation of Ahlstrom et al.
0 = supraneural
, / = vertebral spines, 1, 2, 3,4 = number of pterygiophores between spines, - = no pterygiophore, c = caudal vertebral complex.