(16) In our cohort of patients on surveillance, only two relapses (2%) were to supradiaphragmatic
sites, and both were associated with either para-aortic or inguinal nodal metastases.
RR: relative risk; CI: confidence interval; Obs.: observed number of cases; RT: any radiation treatment; CT: chemotherapy; IDRT: infradiaphragmatic radiation; SDRT: supradiaphragmatic
radiation; MRT: mediastinal radiation; PVB: cisplatin, vinblastine, bleomycin; BEP: bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin; N-A: not available (data not provided).
Although the dispersion mechanism in our patient, from genital area to face, is uncertain, it could be explained by its access through the Batson's plexus, a venous system that connects from the vertebral to supradiaphragmatic
, cervical, and head veins .
Brunet, "Isolated supradiaphragmatic
descending thoracic aorta stenosis in a Takayasu's disease: Surgical cure," European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol.
It showed a high 18F-FDG uptake and an increase in size in the cervical, supradiaphragmatic
, and infradiaphragmatic adenopathies.
Exposure and ligation of the thoracic duct are performed through a right sided thoracoscopic approach, through which the thoracic duct is ligated at the supradiaphragmatic
hiatus between the aorta and azygous vein [66, 68].
Foregut duplication cysts are usually found in the supradiaphragmatic
region (in the lung, at the hilum, or in the oesophagus).
Breast cancer risk after supradiaphragmatic
radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma in England and Wales: a national cohort study.
The disease commonly presents in children and young adults, with supradiaphragmatic
lymphadenopathy or extranodal lesions consisting of tissue infiltrates composed of a polyclonal population of sinus histiocytes.
Ovarian tumors with supradiaphragmatic
lymphadenopathy are rare; hence, they are frequently misdiagnosed.
Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax, as well as difficulty detecting central, supradiaphragmatic
, retroscapular, or parahilar lung fields because of physical and anatomic obstacles, are the main limitations of this ultrasonography technique .
(21,26) Because no portion of the catheter was visible in imaging studies of the abdomen, we decided that the site of entry in the case was supradiaphragmatic