The response of the free field refers to the site response when there is no foundation or superstructure
. Based on the accurate out-of-plane dynamic stiffness matrix for TI-layered medium given in the literature , the direct stiffness method introduced in literature  is adopted to determine the response of the free field in TI ground soil.
What is especially noteworthy about this schema is that it lends itself to a mechanical interpretation of Marx's thought, according to which the concepts (forces, relations, base, superstructure
) are treated as separate and interacting entities like the parts of a machine, each subject to analysis independently of the others and all being meshed according to an invariant design.
The new General Superstructure
Design Considerations, course number 130081P, is a free 3-hour Web-based training that is a prerequisite for updated courses 130081, detailed below; 130081A, LRFD for Highway Bridge Superstructures
(a 2-day classroom course focusing on steel structures); and 130081B, LRFD for Highway Bridge Superstructures
(a 2-day classroom course focusing on concrete structures).
Once the glass superstructure
was in place, the abutment was cleaned and restored where necessary with local Massangis stone, and the concrete floor and east terrace varnished to match the stone's colour.
Practically speaking, it could have been a flimsy piece of superstructure
, yet it was made part of the primary construction, of the first layer, of the skeleton of the building.
Weidlinger Associates, a consulting engineering firm that provides total services in structural, transportation, civil engineering and advanced technology throughout the U.S., Europe and Asia, has successfully reduced construction time on numerous projects utilizing the Up/Up method, which permits simultaneous construction of the below grade structure and the superstructure
; Tree construction that speeds erection of structural steel by eliminating on-site welding and the Low Floor-to-Floor technique that minimizes story heights thereby adding valuable square footage without exceeding height limitations.