supersaturated solution


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Related to supersaturated solution: Unsaturated solution

solution

 [so-loo´shun]
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent).
2. in pharmacology, a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water. For names of specific solutions, see under the name.
3. the process of dissolving or disrupting.
4. a loosening or separation.

Preparation of Solutions. Formula for preparing solutions from a pure drug:


For example, to prepare 2000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from boric acid crystals, the proportion would be

Formula for preparing solutions from stock solutions:

For example, to prepare 1000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from a 4 per cent stock solution, the proportion would be
aqueous solution one in which water is used as the solvent.
BCG solution an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-Guérin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
buffer solution one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution (colloidal solution) imprecise term for colloid (def. 3).
hyperbaric solution one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
isobaric solution a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
saturated solution one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution one containing an irritant substance (sclerosing agent) that will cause obliteration of a space, as in sclerotherapy.
standard solution one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
supersaturated solution an unstable solution containing more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
volumetric solution one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.

su·per·sat·u·rat·ed so·lu·tion

a solution containing more of the solid than the liquid would ordinarily dissolve; it is made by heating the solvent when the substance is added, and on cooling the latter is retained without precipitation; addition of a crystal or solid of any kind usually results in precipitation of the excess solute, leaving a saturated solution.

su·per·sat·u·rat·ed so·lu·tion

(sū'pĕr-sach'ŭr-ā-tĕd sŏ-lū'shŭn)
A solution containing more of the solid than the liquid would ordinarily dissolve; it is made by heating the solvent when the substance is added, and on cooling the latter is retained without precipitation; addition of a crystal or solid of any kind usually results in precipitation of the excess solute, leaving a saturated solution.

solution

1. a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water.
2. the process of dissolving or disrupting.

aqueous solution
one in which water is used as the solvent.
buffer solution
one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution, colloidal solution
a preparation consisting of minute particles of matter suspended in a solvent.
hyperbaric solution
one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution
one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
iodine solution
a transparent, reddish brown liquid, each 100 ml of which contains 1.8 to 2.2 g of iodine and 2.1 to 2.6 g of sodium iodide; a local anti-infective.
iodine solution (strong)
Lugol's solution.
isobaric solution
a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 chemical equivalent of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution
a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
physiological saline solution, physiological salt solution, physiological sodium chloride solution
an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other components, having an osmotic pressure identical to that of blood serum.
priming solution
the fluid used to fill tubing and the reservoir of a cardiac bypass unit before use.
saline solution
a solution of sodium chloride, or common salt, in purified water.
saturated solution
a solution in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution
one containing an irritant substance that will cause obliteration of a space, such as the lumen of a varicose vein or the cavity of a hernial sac.
standard solution
one containing a fixed amount of solute.
supersaturated solution
one containing a greater quantity of the solute than the solvent can hold in solution under ordinary conditions.
volumetric solution
one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dehlinger in Geisler [5] has talked of certain groups of atoms, complexes, arising in the supersaturated solution which have the capacity to grow, and only with time and in certain regions do they finally attain the concentration and space lattice of the equilibrium precipitate.
In the first stage, the polymer/gas solution formation is accomplished by saturating a polymer under a high gas pressure, forming a single-phase supersaturated solution governed by the gas dissolution in the polymer matrix which is a function of pressure and, at a lesser extent, of temperature.
As the shear rate grows, the bubble nucleation rate in the supersaturated solution increases, but the increase in the number of supercritical bubbles is accompanied by their stronger coalescence.
Supersaturated solutions contain dissolved sugar at a higher ratio than is normally possible at a given temperature.
During the last few years, numerous examples of two-dimensional nucleation in crystal growth from low supersaturated solutions were reported and discussed.
Linear crystals in radial habits and tabular crystals in rosette habits both reflect conditions of rapid crystal growth from highly supersaturated solutions.
In chemistry there are mixtures of liquids called supersaturated solutions that suddenly crystallize when a small catalyst is introduced into the mix.
They are examining more-traditional types of crystal--protein and DNA crystals grown in supersaturated solutions.
Linear fouling is commonly associated with crystallization from pure particle-free supersaturated solutions under constant heat flux conditions; non-asymptotic falling rate fouling with crystallization under conditions in which the temperature of the deposit-fluid interface falls with time (which it does not normally do under constant heat flux conditions); asymptotic fouling with any fouling mode in which either deposit attachment to the surface is eventually inhibited entirely by various possible autoretardation mechanisms, or deposit detachment increases with deposit thickness to the point where it equals deposit attachment; and sawtooth fouling with periodic shedding of deposit clumps due, for example, to velocity surges or to deposit aging.
Another very important parameter that depends on both the solubility and the solid-state properties of the API, is the potential for drugs to generate supersaturated solutions.
These range from "pass arounds" such as mood rings and geologic specimens with special properties, to formal demonstrations such as supersaturated solutions used as heat storage materials, sheets of thermochromic liquid crystals, and piezoelectric devices.
As soon as ion clusters in the supersaturated solutions grew to the critical size, nuclei formed.