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a kidney, in addition to the two usually present, developed from the splitting of the nephrogenic blastema or from a separate metanephric blastema, into which a partial or complete duplication of the ureteral stalk enters to form a separate, capsulated kidney; in some cases, the separation of the duplicated organ is incomplete.
either of the two organs in the lumbar region that filter the blood, excreting the end-products of body metabolism in the form of urine, and regulating the concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphate and other ions in the extracellular fluid. Bean-shaped in the dog, cat, sheep and laboratory animals, lobed in the ox and some fetal animals such as the horse; irregularly lobed in birds. See also renal.
an extracorporeal device used as a substitute for nonfunctioning kidneys to remove endogenous metabolites from the blood, or as an emergency measure to remove exogenous poisons such as barbiturates. Called also hemodialyzer.
meat hygiene term for cystic kidney.
basal lamina kidney
part of the filtration barrier of the kidney; is much thicker than most basal laminae.
a solid, irregularly lobed organ of bizarre shape, formed by fusion of the two renal anlagen. Called also lump kidney.
a shriveled, irregular and scarred kidney due to suppurative pyelonephritis.
an atrophic kidney that may be scarred and granular.
occurs in most species, without apparent increase in total renal mass.
may be due to polycystic kidney disease, hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis or congenital absence of one kidney resulting in hypertrophy of the other.
one affected with fatty degeneration.
one that is freely movable, especially a human kidney (normally more firmly fixed than those in quadrupeds); called also hypermobile kidney. See also nephroptosis.
a single anomalous organ developed as a result of fusion of the renal anlagen.
giant kidney worm
one with obstruction of its blood flow, resulting in renal hypertension. Produced experimentally in dogs.
an anomalous organ resulting from fusion of the corresponding poles of the renal anlagen.
one that is freely movable; called also floating kidney. See also nephroptosis.
kidney meridian points
acupuncture points on the kidney meridian.
a kidney which has failed to ascend from its primordial site to the roof of the abdomen.
polycystic kidney disease
the most common congenital renal defect but most cases are sporadic and do not cause clinical illness because there is still sufficient renal mass to avoid uremia. In some cases the enlarged kidney is detected incidentally during a clinical examination. Rarely both kidneys are badly involved and the animal is dead at birth or dies soon afterwards. In some cases, there are signs of progressive renal failure, perhaps not until later in life. The defect is inherited in Persian cats, Cairn terriers and pigs. In Cairn terriers, cysts may also occur in the liver. See also feline perirenal cysts.
pulpy kidney disease
see Clostridium perfringensenterotoxemia.
radioimaging of a kidney by the use of a rectilinear scanner after the intravenous administration of a radiopaque material.
additional kidneys which develop as a consequence of two ureteric buds arising from one mesonephric duct so that two kidneys develop on the one side.
commonly and successfully performed in experimental dogs. Increasingly used as a therapeutic procedure in clinical veterinary medicine for renal failure in cats and dogs.
turkey egg kidney
a speckled pattern caused by hemorrhagic glomeruli in diseases such as porcine erysipelas.
floating or hypermobile kidney. See also nephroptosis.
focal nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis, seen most commonly in calves.
in excess of the regular number.
an additional kidney which may be fused with or separate from a normal kidney; caused by the formation of an extra ureteric bud in the embryo.
in cows may be accompanied by a supernumerary mammary gland. May also be an adjunct to an existing teat and also share its teat cistern.