Before replacing a new permanent catheter, a venography for upper extremities and superior vena cava was performed by interventional radiology and no flow of contrast agent was observed in superior vena cava vein, suggesting an obstruction in vena cava superior vein
and right and left juguler vein's blood flows were through azygos and hemiazygos veins respectively.
Right-sided PAPVR consists of anomalous drainage of a right pulmonary vein to superior vein cava, azygos vein, coronary sinus, or inferior vena cava.
On CT images PAPVR of the left upper lobe can be mistaken for a left persistent superior vein cave (SVC) because both conditions are characterized by the presence of a "vertically oriented" anomalous vein, located laterally to the aortic arch; the main difference between these abnormalities is that in left persistent SVC CT scans show two vessels anteriorly to the left main bronchus, while in the left-upper lobe PAPVR there are not any vessels in that location, or there is one with a small caliber .
Similarly, muscle bundles in the superior veins
were substantially longer than those in the inferior veins.
Although different mechanisms of AF exist, it is well established that the myocardial sleeves of the PVs, especially the superior veins
, are crucial sources of triggers that initiate AF .