superior parathyroid gland

superior parathyroid gland

[TA]
one of two parathyroid glands developing from the endoderm of the fourth pharyngeal pouch; usually located midway along the posterior border of the thyroid gland.
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A fused single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scan conducted at our institution showed increased radiotracer uptake by the left superior parathyroid gland (figure 1), consistent with a parathyroid adenoma.
The superior parathyroid gland, from the fourth pharyngeal pouch, migrates very little before it rests on the dorsal and superior aspect of the thyroid gland.
The superior parathyroid gland and the ultimobranchial body develop from the fourth branchial pouch, also in the vicinity of the piriform sinus.
The right superior parathyroid gland was enlarged, whereas the right inferior parathyroid was grossly within normal limits.
Ultrastructural examination of formalin-fixed deparaffinized tissue from the 1700-mg right superior parathyroid gland showed numerous, fine intracytoplasmic vacuoles.
An undigested DNA sample from the right superior parathyroid gland and from the left superior parathyroid gland specimens showed 2 identical dominant bands corresponding to 2 HUMARA alleles, whereas digested DNA samples from the same specimens showed only one dominant band with identical size (Figure 3).
The right and left superior parathyroid glands measured 2.
The WCCs of the enlarged superior parathyroid glands were immunoreactive for parathyroid hormone (Dako, Carpinteria, Calif, at 1:25), cytokeratin AE1/3 (Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, Ind, at 1:8000), chromogranin (Biogenex, San Ramon, Calif, at 1:400), and synaptophysin (Dako at 1:100).
In our case, the 2 enlarged superior parathyroid glands were almost completely replaced by WCCs with only a minute rim of extracapsular, histologically unremarkable parathyroid tissue, whereas the inferior parathyroids were grossly and histologically normal.
Superior parathyroid glands tend to be found dorsal to the mid-to-superior thyroid pole and in the retropharyngeal space (Figure 2).
Interestingly, superior parathyroid glands can fall posteriorly and inferiorly when extracapsular and enlarged.
The 2 superior parathyroid glands were explored during surgery.
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