Equation (3) came into existence due to electrostatic repulsion, since the supercoil
is in equilibrium hence the opposite side force factor given by
To understand more completely how DNA supercoils
and the forces that make the strands writhe, Tamar Schlick, a mathematician and Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher at New York University, and her colleagues have developed a computer model that links knot theory to biochemistry
During semiconservative replication, the replisomal machinery at the advancing replication fork forces the intertwined DNA strands ahead of it to become overwound or positively supercoiled
. These positive super-coils are redistributed behind the fork by the rotation of the replicative machinery around the helical axis of the parental duplex.
From gel electrophoresis studies, plumbagin nanoparticles show the change of DNA form I to form II (Figure 8), due to its nanosize which increases the surface area and solubility in incubation of DNA with plumbagin, the supercoiled
form of plasmid pUC18 DNA being lengthened without any obvious unwinding, but the DNA mobility for PLN was slightly reduced (Figure 9) .
The DNA protective properties of extracts were investigated using supercoiled
pBR322 plasmid DNA against damage caused by hydroxyl (*OH) radicals and the results are shown in Figure 4.
The DNA cleavage activity of our complexes was examined using supercoiled
pentry/d-topo plasmid DNA.
Plasmid DNA strand scission was achieved by monitoring the gel electrophoresis for naturally occurring, covalently supercoiled
conformation (Form I, SC) of pUC18 DNA transition to the open circular (Form II, OC) and linear conformation (Form III, LC).
Shlyakhtenko, "Visualization of supercoiled
DNA with atomic force microscopy in situ," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
This element is an iM/G4-forming region consisting of five contiguous runs of cytosines/ guanines wherein iM and G4 structures form from four contiguous runs, as described in ssDNA and supercoiled
plasmids [12,14, 29-31]; the fifth run has been postulated to have a role in base-excision repair, as the first four runs are resistant .
Human mtDNA consists of circular, double-stranded, supercoiled
molecules that are found in each cell in one up to 10,000 copies, depending on the bioenergetic requirements of the tissue and whose number declined with aging .
The iconic image of DNA as a rigid twisted ladder is reimagined as one of dynamic looping strands in supercoiled
Serious overestimation in quantitative PCR by circular (supercoiled
) plasmid standard: microalgal pcna as the model gene.