superantigen


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superantigen

 [soo″per-an´tĭ-jen]
any of a group of powerful antigens occurring in various bacteria and viruses that bind outside of the normal T cell receptor site and are able to react with multiple T cell receptor molecules, thus activating T cells nonspecifically. Included are staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxins causing toxic shock syndrome and exfoliative dermatitis.

su·per·an·ti·gen

(sū'pĕr-an'ti-jen),
An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are induced by antigens that are presented in the antigen recognition site leading to the release of numerous cytokines. A single superantigen may potentially activate as much as 15% of the lymphocytic repertoire.
See also: antigen.

superantigen

/su·per·an·ti·gen/ (-an´tĭ-jen) any of a group of powerful antigens occurring in various bacteria and viruses that binds outside of the normal T cell receptor site, reacting with multiple T cell receptor molecules and activating T cells nonspecifically.

superantigen

one of a family of related substances, including staphylococcal and streptococcal exotoxins, that can short-circuit the normal sequence of events leading to activation of helper T cells. Superantigens initiate an uncontrolled proliferation of T cells but do not require processing and presentation by macrophages. The result is either an acute and potentially life-threatening disease, such as toxic shock syndrome, or a chronic inflammatory process, such as rheumatic fever.

superantigen

One of a class of molecules that react with a substantial proportion of the whole population of T cells in the body. They include Staphylococcus aureus ENTEROTOXINS. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a powerful T-cell mitogen and can give rise to the release of large quantities of CYTOKINES and LEUKOTRIENES. This is believed to be one of the bases of the TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME.

superantigen

molecules that are potent T lymphocyte mitogens and simultaneously bind to class II MHC molecules. They are often associated with staphylococcal products and are involved in enterotoxemias and toxic shock syndrome in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
Superantigen genes in group A streptococcal isolates and their relationship with emm types.
Naptumomab estafenatox, also known as ABR-217620, is an immunotoxin consisting of the fragment of the antigen-binding part of a mAb targeting 5T4 and the superantigen Staphylococcal enterotoxin A.
Cytotoxin and pyrogenic toxin superantigen gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows and relationships with macrorestriction genomic profiles J.
Due to published results of Staphylococcal, enterotoxins act as superantigen and causes of inflammation disease.
T cell-mediated lethal shock triggered in mice by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: critical role of tumor necrosis factor.
There are five known types of classical enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), many new types of enterotoxins have been described, called nonclassical enterotoxins (SEG to SEU) (1,4,7-10) and more recently described, superantigen SElX (selx gene), that contributes to the lethality of a strain CA-MRSA in necrotizing pneumonia (community acquired-Methicillin Resistant S.
2015) Prevalent emm types and superantigen gene patterns of group A Streptococcus in Thailand.
In examining the levels of staph colonization on the skin of four patients with diabetes, the researchers estimate that exposure to the bacterial superantigens for people who are heavily colonized by staph is proportional to the doses of superantigen that caused the rabbits to develop diabetes symptoms in the team's experiments.
Superantigen gene profiles and presence of exfoliative toxin genes in community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Chinese children.
Role of interferon-y-producing T cells in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps associated with staphylococcal superantigen.
Human endogenous retrovirus-K18 superantigen expression and human herpesvirus-6 and human herpesvirus-7 viral loads in chronic fatigue patients.