A special tests battery for shoulder included Neer's test, Hawkins- Kennedy test for shoulder impingement, apprehension relocation test for anterior instability, sulcus sign
for inferior instability, painful arc, Speed's test for long head of biceps, lift off test for subscapularis involvement (17) and resisted isometric contraction of supraspinatus (18).
Notable on examination, he was found to have anterior apprehension, a positive inferior sulcus sign
(compared to the uninvolved limb), and a mild posterior instability to load shift testing.
The patient had no evidence of generalized excessive joint laxity with a negative sulcus sign
and no signs of posterior instability.
In 15 patients PA view even expiratory film was unable to diagnose pneumothorax, but opposite lateral decubitus view showed pneumothorax with collapsed lung border and deep sulcus sign
. In 5 patients, both PA and opposite lateral decubitus views were not able to diagnose pneumothorax and finally diagnosed with CT scan.
To help detect instability, look for the sulcus sign
, and do a load and shift test and an apprehension-relocation test.
Per il ginocchio sono stati eseguiti i Test del Cassetto anteriore e posteriore (17) (risultati positivi), per la spalla sono stati eseguiti il Load & Shift Test (risultato negativo), il Sulcus Sign
(negativo), l'Apprehension Test (positivo) (18); per il rachide cervicale il Sharp Purser Test (19) (dolente ma senza segni di instabilita), il Test di stabilita latero-laterale C1-C2 (dolente ma senza segni di instabilita), il Cranial Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT) (20) e risultato visivamente positivo per attivazione compensatoria dei muscoli sternocleidomastoidei e scaleni, controllati visivamente e manualmente dal terapista.
More importantly, the other shoulder is examined looking for a sulcus sign
Classical chest X-ray signs for a tension pneumothorax include a visible lung edge running parallel to the chest wall, hyperlucency, deep sulcus sign
and abdominal quadrant hyperlucency.
While there are many methods of relocation, the key is traction inferiorly, If the patient has good range of motion and only mild pain, assess the instability of the joint using the apprehension sign, the posterior glide (jerk test), and the sulcus sign
Glenohumeral instability tests as apprehension, relocation, and hyperabduction as well as sulcus sign
were all negative for both sides.
The most widely used tests are the apprehension test, the sulcus sign
, and the load-and-shift test.
The crank test, drawer sign, load and shift test, relocation test, and sulcus sign
, detailed in TABLE 2, (12-14) were all positive for shoulder instability; the Clunk and O'Brien tests were negative, and the contralateral shoulder exam was within normal limits.