Dental lasers are used in applications such as conservative dentistry, priodontic surgeries, endodontic, sulcular
debridement, laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP), laser-facilitated wound healing, reduction of the bacteria levels in the periodontal pockets, and laser root planning.
The crestal and sulcular
incision was made extending from posterior edentulous area to the median mandible with vertical releasing incision in anteriormandible.Surgicalshavingandrecountering of mandible through delicate preservation of the mental nerve in the left side of the mandible was performed.
 If the marginal fit is not proper, it results in increased plaque accumulation, gingival sulcular
fluid flow, bone loss, resulting in microleakage, followed by recurrent caries, periodontal disease and eventually affecting the longevity of prosthetic restorations.
Relationship between sulcular
sulfide level and oral malodor in subjects with periodontal disease.
Trope identified CRR as a sub-attachment RR of sulcular
origin, as it mostly occurs below the epithelial attachment (but not exclusively) at the cervical area (2).
It is an important factor in the initiation of gingivitis and, further, periodontal disease because it increases the permeability of the sulcular
epithelium to a plethora of toxic or antigenic substances in addition to the formation of low pH biofilms and plaque deposits detrimental to periodontal health. Furthermore, it has been shown that untreated periodontal disease can lead to systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
During the establishment of the position of restorative margins in relation to the periodontal attachment, ideally patients existing sulcular
depth should be used as a guideline to evaluate the biologic width specification for patient.
The vertical incisions were connected by one sulcular
, which was performed in the gingival sulcus of the affected tooth (Figure 2).
Increased levels of especially active MMP-8 (aMMP-8), but not latent, inactive proform, have been found in periodontitis- and peri-implantitis-affected oral fluids (saliva, mouth rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and periimplant sulcular
fluid (PISF)) [8-10].
Relationship of sulcular
sulfide level to severity of periodontal disease and BANA test.
Marginal adaptation is a very important aspect when it comes to indirect restorations, because no matter how small the maladaptation is, it will cause small marginal gaps/openings leading to plaque accumulation, production of sulcular
fluid, possibility of bone loss and periodontal disease development at the site, infiltration, and recurrent caries [11-13].
Nowadays, it is believed that the measurement of the concentration of humoral factors of inflammation in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implant sulcular
fluid (PISF) may be very helpful in assessing the severity of the inflammatory process within periodontal tissues, particularly in the early periodontitis and/or peri-implantitis [22-24].