It is an important factor in the initiation of gingivitis and, further, periodontal disease because it increases the permeability of the sulcular
epithelium to a plethora of toxic or antigenic substances in addition to the formation of low pH biofilms and plaque deposits detrimental to periodontal health.
Following local anaesthesia, buccal and lingual sulcular
incisions were made, and mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated.
5 Control of moisture, either due to saliva or sulcular
fluid is also necessary when moisture - sensitive restorative and impression materials are used.
IL-8 is normally present in health, is released by periodontal pocket ephitelial cells to maintain the cleansing efflux of neutrophils into the gingival sulcus, to keep the low levels of bacteria, by restricting them to the sulcular
Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease, characterised by bleeding, plaque formation and gum inflammation, and occurs when subgingival bacteria impair the barrier function of the sulcular
epithelium, causing subsequent inflammation.
9) IL-6 is an inflammatory marker and increased IL-6 levels often are present in the sulcular
epithelium of a periodontal pocket.
bleeding index: a 0-to-5 score grading tendency of the gums to bleed on probing, ranging from healthylooking gums with no bleeding on probing to spontaneous bleeding, change in color, and marked swelling.
For example, MMPs that exist in GCF, saliva, mouth-rinses, and peri-implant sulcular
fluid (PISF) can be used to discover a novel chair-side and point-ofcare analytical test, which is a nontraumatic method for the diagnosis of periodontal diseases [120,121].
Mariotti (1999) characterized gingival diseases with presence of 1) signs and symptoms that are confined to gingiva 2) presence of dental plaque to initiate and exacerbate severity of lesions 3) clinical signs of inflammation (enlarged gingival contours due to edema or fibrosis, colour transition to a red and bluish-red hue, elevated sulcular
temperature, bleeding upon stimulation, increased gingival exudates 4) clinical signs and symptoms associated with stable attachment levels on a periodontium with no loss of attachment or on a stable but reduced periodontium 5) reversibility of disease by removing the etiology 6) possible role as a precursor to attachment loss, around teeth.
A palatally oriented horizontal incision was made in the edentulous No 11 ridge with a sulcular
extension to the mesio-buccal aspects of tooth No.
1) In NSPT, laser therapy is advocated for sulcular
debridement, also known as soft tissue curettage, and for bactericidal effects within the periodontal pocket.
incisions were placed with a # 15 blade from distal aspect of 33 to mesial aspect of 42.