sugar


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sugar

 [shoog´ar]
a sweet carbohydrate of either animal or vegetable origin; the two principal groups are the disaccharides and the monosaccharides.
beet sugar sucrose from sugar beets.
blood sugar
1. glucose occurring in the blood.
2. the amount of glucose in the blood.
cane sugar sucrose from sugar cane.
fruit sugar fructose.
invert sugar a mixture of equal amounts of dextrose and fructose, obtained by hydrolyzing sucrose; used in solution as a parenteral nutrient.

sug·ar

(shu'găr), Avoid the colloquial substitution of this word for glucose unless the meaning is clear from the context.
One of the sugars, which see, pharmaceutical forms are compressible sugar and confectioner's sugar.
See also: sugars.
[G. sakcharon; L. saccharum]

sugar

/sug·ar/ (shoog´er) any of a class of sweet water-soluble carbohydrates, the monosaccharides and smaller oligosaccharides; often specifically sucrose.
blood sugar  glucose occurring in the blood, or the amount of glucose in the blood.
invert sugar  a mixture of equal amounts of dextrose and fructose, obtained by hydrolyzing sucrose; used in solution as a parenteral nutrient.

sugar

(sho͝og′ər)
n.
1. A sweet crystalline or powdered substance, white when pure, consisting of sucrose obtained mainly from sugarcane and sugar beets and used in many foods, drinks, and medicines to improve their taste. Also called table sugar.
2. Any of a class of water-soluble crystalline carbohydrates, including sucrose and lactose, having a characteristically sweet taste and classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides.

sug′ar·er n.

sugar

[shoo͡g′ər]
Etymology: Gk, sakcharon
any of several water-soluble simple carbohydrates. The principal categories of sugars are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single sugar, such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. A disaccharide is a double sugar, such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose. A polysaccharide is a sugar made up of repeating units of glucose, such as cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Sugars play an important role in biology by either forming conjugates with other biomolecules (e.g., glycoproteins) or by mediating cell surface recognition events (e.g., bacterial or viral binding to cells). See also carbohydrate, fructose, galactose, glucose, saccharide, sucrose.

sugar

A water-soluble, crystallizable carbohydrate that is the primary source of energy and structural components. See Amino sugar, Non-reducing sugar, Reducing sugar.

sug·ar

(shug'ăr)
Colloquial usage for sucrose; pharmaceutic forms include compressible sugar and confectioner's sugar.
See also: sugars
[G. sakcharon; L. saccharum]

sugar

a simple form of CARBOHYDRATE, formed of MONOSACCHARIDE units. Such molecules can exist in either a straight chain or a ring form. The straight chain contains a C=O group; if this group is terminal the sugar has the properties of an aldehyde (aldose sugar), if nonterminal the sugar acts as a ketone (ketose sugar). Both aldose and ketose sugars can be oxidized and will reduce alkaline copper solutions (see FEHLING'S TEST, BENEDICT'S TEST). They are thus called REDUCING SUGARS. Several disaccharides such as maltose and lactose are also reducing sugars. Sucrose, however, is a nonreducing sugar in which the linkage of glucose and fructose masks the potential aldehyde group of glucose and the potential ketone group of fructose, so that no reduction occurs in the Fehling's and Benedict's tests.

The backbone of the sugar can be of varying lengths, containing as little as three carbons (triose sugars) but, more commonly five carbons (pentose sugar) and six carbons (hexose sugars).

sugar

the colloquial term for sucrose. Commercial table sugar comes from either sugar cane or sugar beet. Chemically, the term sugars includes sucrose and other disaccharides (maltose, lactose) and also the simple sugars, the monosaccharides (pentoses, hexoses).

sugar

carbohydrates (saccharides) acting as energy sources; general composition (CH2O)n e.g. glucose (C6H12O6); polymerize to form major constituents of bacterial cell walls and mucoproteins

sug·ar

(shug'ăr)
One of the sugars, e.g., confectioners' sugar.
[G. sakcharon; L. saccharum]

sugar,

n one of a number of water-soluble carbohydrates. Sugars are divided into two major categories,
monosaccharides and
disaccharides. Table sugar or sucrose is the principal disaccharide; glucose or blood sugar is the principal monosaccharide.
sugar alcohols,
n.pl the nutritive sweeteners found in most grains, fruits, and vegetables that undergo natural fermentation as they are broken down by oral bacteria; not directly linked to the development of dental caries but may cause diarrhea if ingested in excessive amounts.

sugar

a sweet carbohydrate of both animal and vegetable origin, the two principal groups of which are the disaccharides and the monosaccharides. Unless qualified, e.g. fruit sugar, milk sugar, usually refers to sucrose.

sugar beet
see betavulgaris.
sugar beet pulp
see beet pulp.
sugar beet tops
see betavulgaris.
sugar cane
as such is not fed but molasses and the pith, bagasse, are fed (Camola is a feed composed of 4 parts pith and 10 parts molasses). Sugar cane may contain sufficient cyanogenetic glycoside to cause poisoning if the appropriate enzyme is also supplied.
sugar fecal centrifugation
using Sheather's solution; standard procedure for examination of feces for parasite eggs.
sugar gum
eucalyptuscladoclyx.
invert sugar
a sugar obtained by hydrolyzing sucrose; a mixture of glucose and fructose. Called invert sugar because sucrose is dextrorotary—the mixture is levorotary. Used as a parenteral nutrient. Called also invertose.
sugar of lead
lead acetate, used in the preparation of white lotion. Occurs naturally on weathered paintwork and is attractive and poisonous to animals.
sugar of milk
see lactose.

Patient discussion about sugar

Q. how high is to high sugar I have been to surgry 3 times in 2 months and I have had my sugar go over before but not like this. I went to the Dr and Hes not worried about it. In the morning it is running 124 to 143 and 2 hrs after I eat it is running 165 to 200. At the Dr office it only showed 5.6 and He said 6.5 and over is bad! I have never sugar this high ever! It is in the family, my Mom, her Mom, her Dad ECT. What do you all think about it!

A. It seems what the doctor was referring to at the office wasn't the blood glucose (sugar) measurements but rather HbA1c - a substance in the blood that reflects the sugar levels in the PAST 8-12 weeks. Surgery is a substantial stress to your body and thus can increase your blood sugar. The A1C reflects the average levels during that time so it may overcome the temporary elevation due to the surgery.

You may read more here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HbA1c

Q. Is there any difference in sugar. Is there any difference in sugar between flavored milk and fruit drinks or carbonated soft drinks?

A. Yes …Flavored milk contains both natural and added sugars and has less added sugar than carbonated soft drinks. It has been found that flavored milk just contributes only 2-4 % of total added sugar in kid’s diets as compared to 50-60 percent or more by soft and fruit drinks.

Q. i have high sugar problem .. how can i reduce it to a normal levels? and what medications can help me?

A. You can watch your diet and limit the amount of sugar you consume (avoid sugar containing food and drinks). In addition, watching your weight and limiting the fat and carbohydrates in your diet is also very helpful. Daily physical activity is known to be very helpful for glucose level problems, and of course medication, if necessary. You should consult a doctor about which medications to take, depending on your glucose levels. It can be either pills or insulin injections.

More discussions about sugar
References in classic literature ?
I would build a sugar house in the village; I would invite learned men to an investigation of the subject—and such are easily to be found, sir; yes, sir, they are not difficult to find—men who unite theory with practice; and I would select a wood of young and thrifty trees; and, instead of making loaves of the size of a lump of candy, dam’me, ‘Duke, but I’d have them as big as a haycock.
You bring her home, and you discover that it's the old story of the sugar over again.
Meantime, Hargrave volunteered to ring for the sugar, while Grimsby lamented his mistake, and attempted to prove that it was owing to the shadow of the urn and the badness of the lights.
When that official hurried up, fuzzy-haired and somewhat blear-eyed at that early hour, the detective (who was not without an appreciation of the simpler forms of humour) asked him to taste the sugar and see if it was up to the high reputation of the hotel.
Here it is," said the Fairy, taking a lump from a golden sugar bowl.
City--I think as he fought for me you ought to buy your Tea & Sugar at his father's.
Mais vous venez trop tard," she said, rubbing her handkerchief on her hand, which the horse had made wet in taking the sugar.
Oh, but it is right, just as it is right that stone won't burn like wood, that sea sand isn't sugar, that thorns prick, that water is wet, that smoke rises, that things fall down and not up.
In less than a minute Carlier was kicking at the door furiously, howling, "If you don't bring out that sugar, I will shoot you at sight, like a dog.
By the same fleet my two merchant-trustees shipped me one thousand two hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole account in gold.
The last glass of wine we had I drank, and put sugar in it, because of its having some spirit to supply nourishment; but there being no substance in the stomach for the digesting office to work upon, I found the only effect of the wine was to raise disagreeable fumes from the stomach into the head; and I lay, as they told me, stupid and senseless, as one drunk, for some time.
He does not pay me and I sell the sugars for thirteen hundred livres.