succinic acid


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

cycle

 [si´k'l]
a succession or recurring series of events.
cardiac cycle a complete cardiac movement, or heart beat, including systole, diastole, and the intervening pause.
Cardiac cycle. From Applegate, 2000.
cell cycle the cycle of biochemical and morphological events occurring in a reproducing cell population; it consists of the S phase, occurring toward the end of interphase, in which DNA is synthesized; the G2 phase, a relatively quiescent period; the M phase, consisting of the four phases of mitosis; and the G1 phase of interphase, which lasts until the S phase of the next cycle.
citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle.
estrous cycle the recurring periods of estrus in adult females of most mammalian species and the correlated changes in the reproductive tract from one period to another.
hair cycle the successive phases of the production and then loss of hair, consisting of anagen, catagen, and telogen.
menstrual cycle see menstrual cycle.
ovarian cycle the sequence of physiologic changes in the ovary involved in ovulation; see also ovulation and reproduction.
reproductive cycle the cycle of physiologic changes in the reproductive organs, from the time of fertilization of the ovum through gestation and childbirth; see also reproduction.
sex cycle (sexual cycle)
1. the physiologic changes that recur regularly in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant female mammals.
2. the period of sexual reproduction in an organism that also reproduces asexually.
tricarboxylic acid cycle the cyclic metabolic mechanism by which the complete oxidation of the acetyl portion of acetyl-coenzyme A is effected; the process is the chief source of mammalian energy, during which carbon chains of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids are metabolized to yield carbon dioxide, water, and high-energy phosphate bonds. Called also citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, and TCA cycle.
 Central pathways of metabolism: How the body produces energy from the energy-containing nutrients using the tricarboxylic acid cycle. From Davis and Sherer, 1994.
urea cycle a cyclic series of reactions that produce urea; it is a major route for removal of the ammonia produced in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver and kidney.

suc·cin·ic ac·id

(sŭk-sin'ik as'id),
1,4 butanedioic acid, an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle; several of its salts have been variously used in medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing market of succinic acid, in terms of value and volume.
BASF and Purac announced an agreement to combine their separate succinic acid fermentation technologies in September 2009, with a demonstration plant targeted for the second quarter of 2010.
Currently there are mainly two pathways to produce succinic acid namely chemical pathways, and biological pathways.
Succinic acid has been proved to be one such bio-based chemical that can be produced through fermentation using renewable feedstock.
The low-molecular-weight organic acids (Analytical reagent), acetic acid, malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and succinic acid were selected to form ternary complexes.
The monomer used to produce PBS, succinic acid, is a chemical intermediate used for the manufacture of various products, such as paints, dyes, and other polyesters of industrial interest [7].
In the research, the citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid and fumaric acid contents were determined among the organic acids.
The team, which includes the paper's first author and research scientist Xiaoyan Tang, used a starting material called succinate, an ester form of succinic acid. This acid is produced via fermentation of glucose and is first on the U.S.
The team, which included the paper's first author Xiaoyan Tang, used a starting material called succinate, an ester form of succinic acid.
Some studies suggest certain nutrients such as malic acid (found in grapes and wine), citric acid (found in citrus fruits), succinic acid (found in apples and blueberries), citrus pectin (found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits) and chlorella (a type of green algae) exhibit natural chelating properties, suggesting they may be useful for the elimination of toxic metals.
A total of 16 metabolites had a confirmed identity (Table 3), namely, aminoethanol, b-amino isobutyric acid, citric acid, 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol, ethanedioic acid, glycine, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, indole-3-acetic acid, L-threonine, phosphoric acid, pyroglutamic acid, ([R.sup.*],[S.sup.*])-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, serine, succinic acid, uracil, and uric acid.
Extraction experiments were typically performed by equilibrating 8 mL of a 5 x [10.sup.-5] M solution of the metal ions, 1 ml succinic acid (0.01M), and 1 mL of a buffer solution with 10 mL of a 5 x [10.sup.-4] M solution of the [H.sub.8]L in 1,2-dichloroethane.