Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine and subthalamic
nuclei in severe Parkinson's disease.
Excessive presence of pantothenate kinase receptors is responsible for the preferential involvement of the globus pallidi, subthalamic
nuclei, and pars reticularis of the substantia nigra.
Binder et al . reported two infarct-related cases: one was a hemorrhagic venous infarct that evolved several minutes after coagulation of a bridging vein that was interrupted during dural opening (subthalamic
nucleus target), and the other was an ischemic capsular infarction that developed 1 week after subthalamic
Treatment with deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic
nucleus can help with the movement-related symptoms of PD, but recent studies have shown it also reduces pain.
(1, 4, 5) Instead, the production of involuntary movements met with serious difficulty, and only "choreoid hyperkinesia" as a model of ballism was succeeded by partial destruction of the contralateral subthalamic
nucleus, (6) and athetosis by partial destruction of the anterior and posterior putamen in infant monkeys.
Behavioural disorders, Parkinson's disease and subthalamic
High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic
nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson's disease--a team perspective.
Zrinzo et al., "Intra-operative recordings of local field potentials can help localize the subthalamic
nucleus in Parkinson's disease surgery," Experimental Neurology, vol.
Haegelen et al., "Fear recognition is impaired by subthalamic
nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease," Neuropsychologia, vol.
Hwynn et al., "Low-frequency versus high-frequency subthalamic
nucleus deep brain stimulation on postural control and gait in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative study," Brain Stimulation, vol.
Primary diagnoses and surgical targets were as follows: Parkinson's disease (subthalamic
nucleus (STN)), dystonia (globus pallidus interna (GPi)), and essential tremor (ET) (ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (Vim)).