substernal goiter


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goiter

 [goi´ter]
enlargement of the thyroid gland, causing a swelling in the front part of the neck; called also struma. adj., adj goit´rous. If there is evidence of pressure against the throat, or the possibility of a malignancy, the goiter may be removed surgically. Simple endemic goiter is usually caused by lack of iodine in the diet. In graves' disease, goiter is accompanied by excessive thyroid hormones in the blood and symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
aberrant goiter goiter of a supernumerary thyroid gland.
adenomatous goiter that caused by adenoma or multiple colloid nodules of the thyroid gland.
Basedow goiter a colloid goiter that has become hyperfunctioning after administration of iodine.
colloid goiter one that is large and soft and has distended spaces filled with colloid.
cystic goiter one with cysts formed by mucoid or colloid degeneration.
diffuse toxic goiter exophthalmic goiter.
endemic goiter goiter occurring widely in a geographic region where the food or water is deficient in iodine. Treatment consists of iodine replacement; although this will not cure the condition, it can stop it from enlarging, and iodine administered in advance will prevent development of goiter.
exophthalmic goiter any type accompanied by exophthalmos.
fibrous goiter goiter in which the thyroid capsule and stroma are hyperplastic.
follicular goiter parenchymatous goiter.
intrathoracic goiter one with part of the enlarged gland in the thoracic cavity.
iodide goiter that occurring in reaction to iodides at high concentrations, due to inhibition of iodide organification.
multinodular goiter one with circumscribed nodules within the gland.
nontoxic goiter that occurring sporadically and not associated with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
parenchymatous goiter one with increase in follicles and proliferation of epithelium.
perivascular goiter one that surrounds a large blood vessel.
retrovascular goiter one with processes behind a large blood vessel.
substernal goiter one whose lower part lies beneath the sternum.
suffocative goiter one that causes dyspnea due to pressure.
toxic multinodular goiter hyperthyroidism arising in a multinodular goiter, usually of long standing.
vascular goiter one due chiefly to dilatation of the blood vessels of the thyroid gland.

sub·ster·nal goi·ter

enlargement of the thyroid gland, chiefly of the lower part of the isthmus, palpable with difficulty or not at all.

sub·ster·nal goi·ter

(sŭb-stĕr'năl goy'tĕr)
Enlargement of the thyroid gland, chiefly of the lower part of the isthmus, palpable with difficulty or not at all.
References in periodicals archive ?
CT Cross-Sectional Imaging Classification System For Substernal Goiter Based On Risk Factors For An Extracervical Surgical Approach.
Management of patients with substernal goiters. Surg Clin North Am.
Substernal goiter: clinical experience of 72 cases.
Substernal goiters. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2005; 9: 355-359.
As a preparation for the resection of the substernal goiter, the major blood vessels, including the innominate vein, brachiocephalic trunk, superior vena cava, and left subclavian artery, were carefully separated from the substernal goiter, and then thyroidectomy was performed (Figure 3).
In the toboggan technique described by Proye for substernal goiter resection, anterior tracheal attachments are mobilized early and the recurrent laryngeal nerve is identified after ligation of the superior pole as it enters the cricothyroid joint before inferior pole mobilizaton.
Evidence-Based Surgi-cal Management of Substernal Goiter. World J Surg 2008;32:1285-1300.
Surgical management of substernal goiter. J Formos Med Assoc 2000;99:827-32.
The advantage of this approach is that it is easy to perform because the RLN entry point is relatively constant; it is especially useful for large cervical or substernal goiters, where the nerve cannot be found using a lateral or inferior approach.
An exception is in the diagnosis and evaluation of substernal goiters. Independent of morphology, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) provides the most direct and specific information about a thyroid nodule.