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substance

 [sub´stans]
1. physical material that has form and weight; called also matter.
2. the material constituting an organ or body.
substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, created in 1992 to oversee the quality and availability of programs for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of substance abuse and related mental health problems.
black substance substantia nigra.
controlled substance a psychoactive substance that is regulated under the controlled substances act. See table at drug dependence.
depressor substance
gray substance gray matter.
ground substance the gel-like material in which connective tissue cells and fibers are embedded.
substance-induced disorders a subgroup of the substance-related disorders comprising a variety of behavioral or psychological anomalies resulting from ingestion of or exposure to a drug of abuse, medication, or toxin. Included are substance intoxication, substance withdrawal, and other mental disorders such as dementia, mood disorder, and psychotic disorder when they are specifically caused by a substance. See also substance use disorders.
medullary substance
1. the white matter of the central nervous system, consisting of axons and their myelin sheaths.
2. the soft, marrow-like substance of the interior of such structures as bone, kidney, and adrenal gland.
müllerian inhibiting substance a glycoprotein produced by the Sertoli cells of the fetal testis that acts ipsilaterally in the male to suppress the müllerian ducts, consequently preventing development of the uterus and fallopian tubes, thus helping to control formation of the male phenotype.
substance P a peptide composed of 11 amino acids, present in nerve cells scattered throughout the body and in special endocrine cells in the gut; it increases the contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and causes vasodilatation; it is one of the most potent vasoactive substances known, and it seems to be a sensory neurotransmitter involving pain, touch, and temperature.
perforated substance
1. anterior perforated substance, an area anterolateral to each optic tract, pierced by branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
2. posterior perforated substance, an area between the cerebral peduncles, pierced by branches of the posterior cerebral arteries.
pressor substance vasopressor (def. 2).
psychoactive substance (psychotropic substance) any chemical compound that affects the mind or mental processes, particularly a drug used therapeutically in psychiatry, or any of various other types of mind-altering substances such as drugs of abuse and some toxins. See also table at drug dependence. Called also psychoactive agent or drug and psychotropic agent or drug.



There are several different classes of psychoactive substances: antidepressants are used for the relief of symptoms of major depression. lithium is the most common agent used to treat manic episodes of bipolar disorder. antipsychotic agents (or major tranquilizers) are used for management of the manifestations of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. antianxiety agents (called also minor tranquilizers), such as diazepam (Valium), are used for relief of anxiety disorders. While none of these drugs can effect a cure, they can reduce the severity of symptoms and permit the patient to resume more normal activity.

Also included in the category of psychotropic drugs are many other substances that affect the mind but are not used to treat mental disorders, including stimulants such as caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine; opiates; and hallucinogens.
substance-related disorders any of the mental disorders associated with excessive use of or exposure to psychoactive substances, including drugs of abuse, medications, and toxins. The group is divided into substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders, each of which is specified on the basis of etiology, such as alcohol use disorders. See also drug abuse and drug dependence.
slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis SRS-A, an inflammatory agent released by mast cells in the anaphylactic reaction. It induces slow, prolonged contraction of certain smooth muscles and is an important mediator of allergic bronchial asthma.
threshold s's those substances in the blood, such as glucose, that are excreted when they reach their renal threshold.
transmitter substance neurotransmitter.
substance use disorders a subgroup of the substance-related disorders, in which psychoactive substance use or abuse repeatedly results in significantly adverse consequences. The group comprises substance abuse (see drug abuse) and substance dependence (see drug dependence); specific disorders or groups of disorders are named on the basis of etiology, e.g., alcohol use disorders, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence.
white substance white matter.

sub·stance

(sŭb'stănts),
Material.
Synonym(s): substantia [TA], matter
[L. substantia, essence, material, fr. sub- sto, to stand under, be present]

substance

/sub·stance/ (sub´stans)
1. matter with a particular set of characteristics.
2. material constituting an organ or body.

black substance  substantia nigra.
controlled substance  any drug regulated under the Controlled Substances Act.
gelatinous substance  substantia gelatinosa.
gray substance  substantia grisea.
ground substance  the gel-like material in which connective tissue cells and fibers are embedded.
H substance  H antigen (2).
medullary substance 
2. the soft marrowlike substance of the interior of an organ.
substance P  an 11–amino acid peptide, present in nerve cells throughout the body and in special endocrine cells of the intestine. It increases contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, causes vasodilatation, and is a sensory neurotransmitter.
perforated substance 
1. anterior perforated s., an area anterolateral to each optic tract, pierced by branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
2. posterior perforated s., an area between the cerebral peduncles, pierced by branches of the posterior cerebral arteries.
psychoactive substance  any chemical compound that affects the mind or mental processes; used particularly for drugs used therapeutically in psychiatry, the major classes being the antipsychotic, antidepressant, anxiolytic-sedative, and mood-stabilizing drugs.
reticular substance 
1. see under formation.
2. the netlike mass seen in red blood cells after vital staining.
Rolando's gelatinous substance  substantia gelatinosa.
slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis  (SRS-A) an inflammatory agent released by mast cells in the anaphylactic reaction, inducing a slow, prolonged contraction of certain smooth muscles and acting as an important mediator of allergic bronchial asthma.
transmitter substance  neurotransmitter.
white substance  substantia alba.

substance

[sub′stəns]
Etymology: L, substantia, essence
1 any drug, chemical, or biological entity.
2 any material capable of being self-administered or abused because of its physiological or psychological effects.

sub·stance

(sŭb'stăns)
Material.
Synonym(s): substantia [TA] , matter.
[L. substantia, essence, material, fr. sub-sto, to stand under, be present]

substance

A general term meaning any physical matter, or the nature of the matter of which something is made, which has, in recent years acquired a new sense. The term, in this restricted sense, is applied to any chemical, solid, liquid or gaseous, capable of affecting the state of the mind. A psychoactive material.

substance

the material constituting an organ or body.

black substance
substantia nigra.
controlled substance
depressor substance
a substance that tends to decrease activity or blood pressure.
gray substance
nerve tissue composed of predominantly nerve cell bodies, unmyelinated nerve fibers, and supporting tissue. See also gray matter.
ground substance
the gel-like material in which connective tissue cells and fibers are embedded.
medullary substance
1. the white matter of the central nervous system, consisting of axons and their myelin sheaths.
2. the soft, marrow-like substance of the interior of such structures as bone, kidney and adrenal gland.
substance P
an undecapeptide present in the intestine, where it induces contraction of the intestine and dilatation of blood vessels; it is also present in a number of neuronal pathways in the brain and in primary sensory fibers of peripheral nerves, and may be a neurotransmitter associated with transmission of pain impulses.
perforated substance
1. anterior perforated substance, an area anterolateral to each optic tract, pierced by branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
2. posterior perforated substance, an area between the cerebral peduncles, pierced by branches of the posterior cerebral arteries.
pressor substance
a substance that raises blood pressure.
reticular substance
the netlike mass of threads seen in erythrocytes after vital staining.
slow-reacting substance
threshold s's
those substances (e.g. glucose) excreted into the urine only when their concentration in plasma exceeds a certain value.
white substance
tissue consisting mostly of myelinated nerve fibers and constituting the conducting portion of the brain and spinal cord; see also white matter.

Patient discussion about substance

Q. What exactly is PPD? I heard it is a substance in hair color and that some women are allergic to it How can I know if I’m allergic to it?

A. That sounds nasty... so how can I know if i'm allergic to it or not?

Q. What are the bases of Chinese medicine? what substances make chinese medicine so effective according to people's opinion ...

A. good question...
because chinese medicine is a popular medicine and practiced in different rural areas of China- there is a lot of diversity between different methods. different feet maps for reflexology, different opinions on acupuncture points and such. but the general idea is the same. and believe it or not - the chinese medicine is actually a trial and error based method that developed over 4,000 years.
that is a lot of time to do trial and error...

Q. Can anybody tell me the point where I should be worried that I've become an alcoholoic? What is the definition of an alcoholist?

A. You truly have a great site here. Its got a lot of potential and can surely help many.

More discussions about substance
References in classic literature ?
whom thou fli'st, of him thou art, His flesh, his bone; to give thee being I lent Out of my side to thee, neerest my heart Substantial Life, to have thee by my side Henceforth an individual solace dear; Part of my Soul I seek thee, and thee claim My other half: with that thy gentle hand Seisd mine, I yeilded, and from that time see How beauty is excelld by manly grace And wisdom, which alone is truly fair.
form more substantial, stronger in the perch, and broader in the
He seemed to apprehend my meaning; for, lifting up the lappet of his coat, he put me gently into it, and immediately ran along with me to his master, who was a substantial farmer, and the same person I had first seen in the field.
Sir Oliver Lodge has guessed that it is "perhaps the only substantial thing in the material universe"; but no one knows.
Pardon me, your worship," said Sancho, "for, as I cannot read or write, as I said just now, I neither know nor comprehend the rules of the profession of chivalry: henceforward I will stock the alforjas with every kind of dry fruit for your worship, as you are a knight; and for myself, as I am not one, I will furnish them with poultry and other things more substantial.
The airy phantoms that flit before the distempered imaginations of some of its adversaries would quickly give place to the more substantial forms of dangers, real, certain, and formidable.
This particular example is brought into view, not as a proof of any peculiar merit, for the priority in those instances was probably accidental; and still less of any advantage in SEPTENNIAL elections, for when compared with a greater frequency they are inadmissible; but merely as a proof, and I conceive it to be a very substantial proof, that the liberties of the people can be in no danger from BIENNIAL elections.
It is part of the martyrdom which I endure for the cause of the Truth that there are seasons of mental weakness, when Cubes and Spheres flit away into the background of scarce-possible existences; when the Land of Three Dimensions seems almost as visionary as the Land of One or None; nay, when even this hard wall that bars me from my freedom, these very tablets on which I am writing, and all the substantial realities of Flatland itself, appear no better than the offspring of a diseased imagination, or the baseless fabric of a dream.
She could see him instantly before her, in every charm of air and address; but she could remember no more substantial good than the general approbation of the neighbourhood, and the regard which his social powers had gained him in the mess.
All these noises deepened and became substantial to the listener's ear, till she could distinguish every soft and dreamy accent of the love songs that died causelessly into funeral hymns.
For this purpose he ordered it to be well scoured with soap and sand and polished with wax, and then provided it with a substantial leather cush- ion.
She will have occasion for all those attractive powers for which she is celebrated to gain any share of my regard; and I shall certainly endeavour to guard myself against their influence, if not accompanied by something more substantial.

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