are of two types: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders.
The coexistence of mental disorders with substance use or substance-related disorders
has been well documented [4-7].
This study investigated whether gender-specific prevalence rates differ in terms of counselor diagnoses of certain mood, psychotic, adjustment, childhood, and substance-related disorders
, and whether these diagnoses exhibit the same gender-related differences as those reported in the DSM-IV-TR and by researchers who are not counselors = 1,583).
Using all nine decision rules, 39.41% (20 male adolescents, 34 female adolescents) screened for a high probability of a substance-related disorder
, although 70.8% reported no current alcohol or drug use and 42.3% reported never taking a drink or drug.
These calculations revealed that compared with women who had no diagnosis, those with a psychiatric disorder had twice the odds of bearing a low-birth-weight infant (odds ratio, 2.0), those with a substance-related disorder
had almost four times the odds (3.7) and those with both types of diagnoses had three times the odds (3.0).
More than one-third of adolescents aged 12-17 have used alcohol or drugs in the past year, with adolescents of Native American, white, Hispanic, and multiple race/ethnic backgrounds most at risk for substance use and substance-related disorders
, a study has shown.
For substance-related disorders
, there was no statistically significant difference in diagnoses as a function of race, [X.sup.2] (1, N = 104) = .15, p = .39.
Given that this type of plot is difficult to interpret, subgroups were reconstructed along the two following major dimensions: the first, "mental disorders," includes cognitive impairments, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, major depression, and dysthymia; the second, "delinquency," includes substance-related disorders
, antisocial personality, and incarceration within the last 12 months.
Individuals with any mental disorder, any substance-related disorder
and/or major depressive disorder were more likely to fail to complete secondary education compared with those without the disorders (ORs and 95% CI 1.2, 1.0-1.4; 1.6, 1.1-2.5; and 1.6, 1.1-2.3, respectively).
Clients presenting for mental health counseling frequently have co-existing or secondary substance-related disorders
. The high prevalence of these disorders among mental health clients supports universal screening of clients.
It is estimated that more than 15% of South African adults are infected with HIV, (3) and 16%, 10% and 13% of South African adults have had an anxiety, mood or substance-related disorder
in their lifetime.