subsoil

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subsoil

the soil below the plough layer, which is relatively infertile.
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Typically in these soils, the sandy A horizon with <5% clay experiences severe water repellence at the soil surface, plus low fertility, and the clay-rich subsoil experiences poor soil structure.
* Development and demonstration of practical methods that growers can use to identify, avoid, and manage hostile subsoils;
Consequently, the characteristics of subsoil could be different from those of the surface layer.
The Eden soil also has slightly lower clay content than the lower subsoils of Switzerland or the fine-silty pedons.
Surface residue management by no-tillage practices was complicated by the general need to subsoil for effective crop production (Campbell et al., 1974; Box and Langdale, 1984).
Geological Survey (USGS) in Denver, Colo., found that desert subsoils in parts of the Southwest contain large reservoirs of nitrates that had been previously unrecognized in desert nitrogen budgets.
Similar to the observation that the trend in C stock in the topsoils was not observed in the subsoils, Young et al.
Bakker AC, Emerson WW, Oades JM (1973) The comparative effects of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and sodium on some physical properties of red brown earths subsoils. 1.
Subsoils at the Victorian sites were light to heavy clay and became more alkaline with depth, whereas the South Australian sites had clay loam subsoils and neutral pH trends.
Experiments on texture-contrast soils have tested the addition of amendments to subsoils to increase plant root penetration and extraction of stored water, thereby making crops less susceptible to the fluctuating moisture conditions in the surface horizons (Wang et al.
Accumulation or retention of sodium as an exchangeable cation has led to sodicity over large areas of the landscape and subsoils are massive or are characterised by large prismatic and columnar structural units, offering only limited opportunities for root growth.
Crop yield on the sandy soils of the Western Australian wheatbelt is influenced strongly by the plant-available water (PAW) and strength of subsoils. High soil strength may limit root growth and access to potentially available moisture.