subsistence

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subsistence

1. The minimum amount of something essential for life (e.g., a subsistence diet).
2. Any means of barely supporting life.
References in periodicals archive ?
(43) Under the MMPA, Alaska Natives may take protected marine mammals such as seals, whales, and sea otters for subsistence or for use in traditional native handicrafts.
Alaska Statutes section 41.21.020(14) specifies that managers of state parks, recreational areas and preserves must maintain "traditional means of access" to those areas "for a traditional recreational activity." (48) The provision defines traditional recreational activities as "those personal or commercial types of activities that people may use for sport, exercise, subsistence, or personal enjoyment, including hunting, fishing, trapping, or gathering, and that have historically been conducted as part of an individual, family, or community life pattern" on state lands or waters.
The traditionally compatible uses include but are not limited to fishing, hunting, trapping, berry picking, subsistence, and recreational uses, operation of motorized vehicles, and the harvest of personal-use firewood." (51) In Wood-Tikchik State Park that "the current practice of traditional subsistence and recreational activities includes the use of small outboard motors and snow machines." (52)
Subsistence uses of resources provide a different framework within which to analyze the meaning of tradition.
(58) The provision defines "customary and traditional" as "the noncommercial, long-term, and consistent taking of, use of, and reliance upon fish or game in a specific area and the use patterns of that fish or game that have been established over a reasonable period of time taking into consideration the availability of the fish or game," and "customary trade" as "limited noncommercial exchange, for minimal amounts of cash." (59) Whereas ANILCA defines subsistence uses as "customary and traditional uses by rural Alaska residents," state law adds the term "noncommercial" and describes permissible purposes for subsistence activities: personal or family consumption, making and selling of handicrafts, and trade, barter and sharing for personal or family consumption.
Regulations of the Alaska Joint Boards of Fisheries and Game ("Joint Boards" or "Boards") go further than does ANILCA in defining customary and traditional subsistence uses of resources.
For example, one criterion in the regulations of the Joint Boards defining "customary and traditional", subsistence uses is "a long-term ...
The Joint Boards' definition of customary and traditional subsistence uses suggests a span of time covering many generations: the pattern of traditional use must include the passing of knowledge, skills and values "from generation to generation" and involve practices "traditionally used by past generations." (65) These regulations clearly do not contemplate that practices covering a timespan of a few years or even a few decades will qualify as traditional.
For example, the Joint Boards' subsistence regulations specifically require a pattern of use, defined as a consistent repetition of uses of wild resources that recur in specific seasons every year.
For example, one criterion of the Joint Boards' regulations defining "customary and traditional" subsistence uses is a "means of handling, preparing, preserving, and storing fish or game that has been traditionally used by past generations, but not excluding recent technological advances where appropriate." (72) The MMPA considers sewing and stitching of natural materials to be traditional ways of making Native handicrafts, but regulations implementing the Act specifically provide that sewing machines may be used.
For example, recent research suggests that longstanding traditional practices such as egg-collecting for subsistence or for religious ceremonies may have a detrimental effect on the resource if the birds' nesting and feeding patterns are disturbed.
(91) Similary, state subsistence regulations specify noncommercial enterprises.