The bowel is the most common site for extragenital endometriosis, affected in an estimated 3.8% to 37% of patients with known endometriosis.4 7 Implants may be superficial, involving the bowel serosa and subserosa
(figure 1), or they can manifest as deeply infiltrating lesions involving the muscularis and mucosa (figure 2, page 38).
Periappendicitis is defined as accumulation of inflammatory cells in the serosa and subserosa
, usually accompanied by reactive mesothelial cells and a serosal exudate (16) and it may also be caused by other inflammatory processes in the pelvic region.
Los lipomas gastricos (LG), se localizan habitualmente en la submucosa; aunque puede surgir tambien de la capa subserosa
o intramural (Cappell et al.).
Histologically, an invasive colonic type, low grade adenocarcinoma of the appendix (Figure 1), infiltrating up to subserosa
Histopathological examination revealed a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma infiltrating the subserosa
and classified the tumor as pT3 N0.
It was hypothesized that because endometrial glands and stroma in endometriosis are endowed with malignant biological characteristics, endometriosis is able to not only invade the adjacent myometrium but also deeply infiltrate the distal myometrium close to the subserosa
. Therefore, patients with adenomyosis and coexisting endometriosis also had a greater degree of uterine destruction.
The most frequent clinical manifestation of SIST is digestive bleeding because a tumor located in the muscular layer can grow into the submucosa and subserosa
leading to an ulcer, which causes bleeding.
(1,3) PI is most prevalent in the submucosa (69.9%), but can be found in the subserosa
. (1,3) It may be found in both the subserosal and submucosal layers in 4.6% of cases.
Some sites include endometrium, endocervix, subserosa
Patients with colorectal cancer were classified as Stage I (presence of tumor without lymph node involvement extending to subserosa
), Stage II (presence of tumor without lymph node involvement extending beyond subserosa
), Stage III (presence of tumor without lymph node involvement without metastasis), and Stage IV (metastatic tumor) by using this method.
Dukes' TNM staging Description Survival staging (%) Stage 0 Carcinoma in situ A Stage I No nodal involvement, no 90-100% metastasis, tumor invades submucosa ([T.sub.1] [N.sub.0], [M.sub.0]), tumor invades muscularis ([T.sub.2], [N.sub.0], [M.sub.0]) B Stage II No nodal involvement, no 75-85% metastasis, tumor invades subserosa
([T.sub.3], [N.sub.0], [M.sub.0]), invade other organ ([T.sub.4], [N.sub.0], [M.sub.0]) C Stage III Regional lymph nodes involved 30-40% (any [T.sub.4], [N.sub.1] [M.sub.0]) D Stage IV Distant metastasis (any T, any <5% N, [M.sub.1]) Table 4: Primary and secondary prevention strategies of CRC.