Abbreviations: M, mucosa; MP, muscularis propria; SE, serosa exposed; SM, submucosa; SS, subserosa
The histology of the specimen showed abnormal vessels in the serosa and subserosa
of the right colon.
These epithelial invaginations, referred to as RokitanskyAschoff sinuses, form diverticula, which extend into the subserosa
and often contain inspissated bile, stones, or mucus.
1 * T1 = tumour invades submucosa; T2 = tumour invades muscularis propria; T3 = tumour invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa
nonperitonealised pericolic tissues; T4 = tumour directly invades other organs or structures and/or perforates visceral peritoneum; N0 = no regional lymph note netastasis; N1 = metastasis to one to three regional lymph nodes; N2 = metastasis to four or more regional lymph nodes; M0 = no distant metastasis; M1 = distant metastasis.
In addition, after APR, patients whose pathologic findings indicate malignant invasion of rectal subserosa
will need adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.
Krystyna Kiel said the guidelines now recommend FOLFOX as an option for adjuvant therapy for a variety of patients: those with primary tumors invading through the muscularis propria into the subserosa
or into the non-peritoneal pericolic or perirectal tissues; those with any level of primary tumor and metastases to one or more regional lymph nodes; and those with any level of primary tumor, any number of regional lymph node metastases, and distant metastasis.
Mucin pools were present in the submucosa, muscularis propria and subserosa
1-3) The cysts may be located in the subserosa
, submucosa, and, rarely, the muscularis layer.
Biopsies of the gastric fundus, antrum, and duodenum were positive for eosinophilic infiltration of the subserosa
Patients who have undergone RO (no residual tumor) resection and have a tumor invading the muscularis propria or subserosa
but no regional lymph node metastasis should be followed with a history and physical every 4 months for the first postoperative year, every 6 months for the next 2 years, and annually thereafter.
Microscopically, the tumor involved the lamina propria, coursed transmurally, and dissected through the muscularis propria into the subserosa
More advanced lesions, including any involving lymph node metastases, and any without lymph node metastases that invade the muscularis propria, the subserosa
, or non-peritonealized pericolic or perirectal tissues, or those that directly invade other organs or structures require mitomycin/5-EU therapy plus radiotherapy at 55-59 Gy the guide-lines state.