There is also growing scepticism that T-lymphocyte-mediated EAE constitutes a valid animal model for furthering the understanding of MS pathogenesis: whilst macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration characterize the lesions of both conditions, the inflammatory response in classical EAE is largely restricted to the subpial
and perivascular regions, and the confluent zones of demyelination that typify MS are conspicuously absent.
Pathologically there is brown discoloration of the leptomeninges of the cerebellum (especially the vermis), basal frontal lobe, olfactory bulb, temporal cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, spinal cord, nerve roots, ependyma and subpial
tissue of < 3 mm deep.
A conspicuous feature in the setting of long-term seizures is dense subpial
The main target for the antibodies by IIF is the astrocytic foot processes that abut the abluminal surface of capillaries in the brain; they also bind along the subpial
layer and at the glia limitans.
In later stages cortical lesions are often associated with subpial
follicles of B lymphocytes.
Immunostaining with glial fibrillary acidic protein (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, Calif) showed diffuse subpial
cortical and central white matter gliosis (Figure 1, B).
In the hippocampal/entorhinal cortical sections, these cells were most prominent in the CA4 region, as well as in the subpial
zone and in cortical layer V of the entorhinal cortex.
Sarcoidosis can affect any part of the central nervous system with variable manifestations, but the most common are due to meningeal, subpial
, parenchymal, cranial nerve, hypothalamic, and pituitary involvement.
Although PXA is thought to arise from subpial
astrocytes, Powell et al and Kros et al have described cases of histologically typical PXA that show immunoreactivity for synaptophysin and/or neurofilaments.
Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial
transections, immunomodulation, and neurofeedback treatments.
We present a case of non-lesional central area status epilepticus successfully treated early in the course of hospitalization with a combination of resection and multiple subpial
Oligodendrogliomas are part of the infiltrating glial neoplasms and, as such, are characterized by secondary structures of Scherer, which are perineuronal satellitosis, perivascular satellitosis, subpial
aggregation, and infiltration of white matter tracts.