Chronic headache relief after section of suboccipital muscle
dural connections: a case report.
The immediate effects of atlanto-occipital joint manipulation and suboccipital muscle
inhibition technique on active mouth opening and pressure pain sensitivity over latent myofascial trigger points in the masticatory muscles.
During the SMI technique, the subject is asked to keep his eyes closed to avoid eye movements affecting the suboccipital muscle
The examined sites (9 pairs) were the following: the occiput (at the suboccipital muscle
insertions), the low cervical area (at the anterior aspects of the intertransverse spaces at C5-C7), the trapezius muscle (at the midpoint of the upper border), the supraspinatus muscles (at their origins), the second rib (at the costochondral junctions), 2 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle), the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks, posterior to the greater trochanteric prominence, and the knees (at the medial fat pad proximal to the joint line).
Eighteen tender points were; the suboccipital muscle
insertions, the anterior aspects of the intertransverse spaces at C5-C7, the midpoint of the upper border of trapezius muscle, origins of supraspinatus muscle above the scapula spine near the medial border, second rib at the second costochondral junctions, just lateral to the junctions on upper surfaces, lateral epicondyle at 2 cm distal to the epicondyle, gluteal region in upper outer quadrants of buttocks in anterior fold of muscle, greater trochanter, medial fat pad proximal to the knee joint line bilaterally.
Pain, on digital palpation, must be present in at least 11 of the following 18 tender point sites: Occiput: Bilateral, at the suboccipital muscle
Soft tissue communications linking suboccipital muscle
fascia and the dura and its role in cervical neuromuscular control have been examined recently.
suggest that entrapment of the ventral ramus of C2 nerve could be achieved by spasm of the suboccipital muscles
, especially the inferior oblique muscle, because it exits beneath that muscle and is attached to it through fascial attachments .
The suboccipital muscles
are responsible for the stabilization of the upper cervical segment of the vertebral column and the normal movement of the cranium relative to the atlas and the atlas relative to the odontoid vertebra.
It also stretches the scalene and suboccipital muscles
The suboccipital muscles
are part muscle (stretchy) and part ligament (not stretchy).
attached to this region determine head posture, controlling fine complicated movements for compound flexion and extension, as well as lateral flexion with rotation.1,2 The cranial cervical mandibular system is made up of three main structures: TMJ, occipital atlas axis articulation, and hyoid bone with its suspensor system.