Increased expression of interleukin-18 in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus
caudalis after inferior alveolar nerve injury in the rat.
riMLF: rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus, iNC: interstitial nucleus of Cajal, CCN: caudal central subnucleus
, MLF: medial longitudinal fasciculus, III N: oculomotor nucleus, VI N: abducens nucleus, IO: intraocular muscles, SR: superior rectus muscle, MR: medial rectus muscle, Lid: Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, IR: inferior rectus muscle, and pupil: sphincter pupillae muscles.
(39) He also mentioned that one stem axon divided into two daughter axons inside the tract at the level of trigeminal subnucleus
interpolaris and that those collaterals did not overlap.
* inferior rectus - the branch to the inferior oblique also contains parasympathetic preganglionic fibres from the Edinge-Westphal subnucleus
caudalis: beyond homologies with the spinal dorsal horn.
Fifty-five (55%) of total cervical movement (most prominently rotation) is provided by the atlanto-axial joint (C1-C2), which houses the trigeminal spinal tract subnucleus
and C1-C2 dorsal horns.
The trigeminal nerve's (subnucleus
caudalis) spinal nucleus neurons receive these craniofacial nociceptive signals which can suffer nerve plasticity and mistake the cortical location of the source of pain caused by the sensitization of non-related afferent interneurons.
In all cases, many heavily labeled vestibular neurons were found in the contralateral descending/posterior octaval subnucleus
caudalis (pars caudalis) is the lowest division of the trigeminal spinal nucleus, the neurons of which respond to tooth-pulp stimulation. However, the referred pain is perceived to emanate from this trigeminal branch only because the sensations are generated within the subnucleus
caudalis in response to phrenic stimuli, and relayed from here to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus.
Many physiologists and anatomists also include prepositus hypoglossi as a subnucleus
of the VNC, since it receives input from other vestibular subnuclei and is intimately involved in the control of the vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes (see Leigh & Zee, 1991 for a review).
In physiological conditions, after an increase in cutaneous cool signals is detected by the hypothalamic median preoptic subnucleus
(MnPO) of the Preoptic Area (POA), disinhibition of the efferent pathways (in red color) leads to the activation of the three main heat- maintenance/producing mechanisms .