Anatomical areas, which show individual variations in cleft cases, such as the lateral subnasale
inferior (sbnNCS), and areas most affected from the deformity, such as christa philtri (cph'NCS), have to be inspected with attention.
Nose, prominent Increased distance between subnasale
and pronasale (Hennekam et al., 2009).
Then the value of the nasolabial angle was determined, formed by the join of the columella, subnasale
and edge of the upper lip.
(Sn)--The point where the lower border of the nose meets the outer contour of the upper lip (UL).
(3) Pronasale angle (N-Prn-Sn): formed by the nasion, pronasale, and subnasale
(21) found minor but statistically significant changes demonstrating anterior movement of the nose following tooth-borne SARME, with no evident modification of subnasale
. In the present study, there was no effect of RME on nose prominence, similar to the results reported by Kilic et al.
* Soft tissue subnasale
(Sn) to H line: The distance from Sn to H line;
The H angle, Soft tissue facial angle, Nose prominence, Upper lip sulcus depth (upper lip curl), Basic upper lip thickness, Upper lip thickness, Upper lip strain, Skeletal profile convexity, Soft tissue subnasale
to H line, Lower lip to H line, Inferior sulcus to the H line (lower lip sulcus depth), and Soft tissue chin thickness measurements were analyzed using the definitions provided by Holdaway10 (Fig 1).
Three main lines are usually used to assess the lips, E-line, S-line, and subnasale
vertical line (SnV).
Arnett's True Vertical Line (TV-line) passing through the subnasale
and perpendicular to the ground, both upper and lower lips must pass ahead of the line.
Distances of the facial width (zygion to zygion), total face height (trichion to gnathion), short forehead height (trichion to glabella), long forehead height (trichion to nasion), upper face height (trichion to subnasale
), morphological face height (nasion to gnathion), nasal bridge length (nasion to pronasale), nose height (nasion to subnasale
), and lower face height (subnasale
to gnathion) were computed in this study [Figure 1].