Other characteristics are also clear, depending on the subkingdoms
, which follow.
Archezoa are now treated, not as a separate kingdom (2, 3), but as a subkingdom
of the Protozoa, comprising only the two zooflagellate protozoan phyla, Metamonada and Parabasalia (1), which have no mitochondria and are microaerophilic or anaerobic.
Southeastern North American Region of the Madrean Subkingdom
The five-kingdom system does include prokaryotic and eukaryotic "superkingdoms," and classifies Bacteria and Archaebacterta as subkingdoms
(Margulis & Schwarz, 1998).
Potentially more informative results are based on comparisons between the subkingdoms
of protists, the Archezoa and Mitozoa.
In the five-kingdom system, DNA sequence data are the basis for the subkingdoms
Archaea and Eubacteria in kingdom Bacteria.
Finally, the convergence in feeding morphology in pterobranchs and lophophorates suggests that the evolutionary trajectory of major metazoan lineages, such as subkingdoms
or phyla, can be very similar despite distinct phylogenetic origins.