Several studies have demonstrated the usefulness of 16S rRNA-based PCR detection of periodontal bacteria in subgingival
A 24-year-old patient was referred with a fractured upper right canine at the subgingival
level (Figure 1).
2: Supragingival calculus covering more than one third but not more than two thirds of the exposed tooth surface or the presence of individual flecks of subgingival
calculus around the cervical portion of the tooth or both.
A clinician is presented with three choices for margin placement: Supragingival, equigingival, and subgingival
Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease, where diverse microorganisms are implicated in its etiology, mainly anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria localized in the subgingival
MINST has been introduced as a concept that aims at obtaining extensive subgingival
debridement with a retention of the preoperative gingival architecture, creating a minimal wound, and gentle handling of the soft and hard tissues to stimulate the formation of a stable blood clot by natural filling of the infrabony defect [25-28].
In the first visit, the professional irrigated the site with sodium iodide 2% and hydrogen peroxide, and beyond that, subgingival
scaling was made.
Subjects were excluded if they present an implant with a hydroxylapatite-coated surface; had moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (i.e., suppuration, PD > 5 mm and bleeding on probing in more than 30% of subgingival
sites); had aggressive periodontitis; had taken antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs within 6 months prior to the clinical examination; had received periodontal or peri-implant therapy within 6 months; had a chronic medical disease or condition; presented implant-supported prostheses with mobile abutments and/or screws, as well as fractured prosthetic crowns made of ceramic or resin (to avoid occlusal interference); had clinically detectable mobility of the implant (lack of osseointegration); or smoked tobacco.
Previous studies have shown that healthy peri-implant sockets are mainly colonized by oral streptococci which constitutes from 45% to 86% of supra- and subgingival
peri-implant sulcus microbiota.