The primary outcome was a composite: perinatal death or severe neonatal complications (need for respiratory support within 72 hours of birth, Apgar score of < 3 at 5 minutes, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, seizures, infection [confirmed sepsis or pneumonia], meconium aspiration syndrome, birth trauma [bone fracture, neurologic injury, or retinal damage], intracranial or subgaleal hemorrhage
, or hypotension requiring vasopressor support).
Primary perinatal outcomes and components were defined as perinatal death, respiratory support, an Apgar score of 3 or less at 5 minutes, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, seizure, infection, meconium aspiration syndrome, birth trauma, intracranial or subgaleal hemorrhage
, or hypotension that requires vasopressor support.
Birth trauma is any trauma to the newborn as a result of labor and delivery like cephalohematoma, subgaleal hemorrhage
, retinal hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, clavicular fracture, and scalp lacerations.
Computed tomography findings of ongoing subgaleal hemorrhage
. Pediatr Int.
Three main differentials for pediatric head swelling are caput succedaneums, subgaleal hemorrhage
, and cephalohematomas.
He did have a "subgaleal hemorrhage
'' on the back of his scalp, the autopsy report says.
A subgaleal hemorrhage
is a large collection of blood in the soft tissue space between the galea aponeurotica and the skull's periosteum.
in the newborn infant associated with silicone elastomer vacuum extractor.
They listed major primary outcomes of subgaleal hemorrhage
, skull fracture, and intracranial bleeding, and minor primary outcomes of cephalohematoma, scalp laceration, and extensive skin abrasions.
The primary perinatal outcome was a composite endpoint that included fetal or neonatal death; respiratory support in the first 72 hours; 5-minute Apgar of 3 or lower; hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; seizure; infection; meconium aspiration syndrome; birth trauma; intracranial or subgaleal hemorrhage
; and hypotension requiring vasopressors.
"The majority of cases of subgaleal hemorrhage
are associated with vacuum delivery, but vacuum devices are not the only cause of this injury" she said in an interview.
after the use of a vacuum extractor during elective cesarean delivery: a case report.