While not inducing significant changes in the LDL level, aerobic exercise might contribute to increase the size of molecules, thus impairing their ability to penetrate the vascular subendothelial space
, being oxidized and causing atherosclerosis.
The subendothelial space
(SES) appeared widened and filled with massive amount of granular substances in the OVX and OVX+ST groups as demonstrated by the distantly placed IEL (Figures 2(b) and 2(c)).
Electron-dense deposits were found in the paramesangium and around the subendothelial space
of the glomeruli (Figure 3(a)).
An increased sympathetic tone is positively correlated with higher rates of oxygen consumption and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha., These cytokines play key roles in regulating vessel wall tone by affecting the release of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the subendothelial space
In normotensive rats,  LDL cholesterol ingresses into subendothelial space
causing further oxidative damage and imbalance the ability of macrophages to scavenge the lipoproteins are saturated.
Lymphocytes are recruited into the subendothelial space
in a similar manner to monocytes and subsequently become activated by locally present cytokines, such as IL-12 and IL-18 .
Penetration of modified LDL into the subendothelial space
in areas with increased endothelial permeability leads to the formation of focal lipid infiltrations into the intima.
Under oxidative stress, oxidative modification of LDL takes place in the subendothelial space
of the arterial wall and a certain amount of oxLDL is released into the circulation 29].
In advanced atherosclerosis model, in [ApoE.sup.-/-] mice, subendothelial infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and platelets was observed, evidenced by a positivity for CD163 and CD61 immunolabelling, in subendothelial space
and in lipid accumulation sectors (Figure 2).
Chronic endothelial injury and dysfunction resulting from the presence of atherosclerosis, and the inflammatory and metaplastic changes that it induces in the vascular subendothelial space
, are central to our present understanding of vascular and atherosclerotic pathogenesis.
The vasculitis involves destruction of small to medium-sized arteries that contain an inflammatory infiltrate within the vessel wall and subendothelial space
, leading to destruction of the elastic lamina (figure 1).
The Hepatocyte precursors were first generated all over the primordia surrounding the vitelline blood vessel at embryonic day 2 (Suksaweang et al., 2003) and in late embryonic period liver become enlarged and considerable functional or morphological development of chick liver such as formation of subendothelial space
were occurred at late incubation specially after day-16 (SandstrOm and Westman, 1971; Suksaweang et al., 2003).