Further, oxidized LDL is capable of stimulating endothelial cells to express adhesion molecules, which attract excess of foamy macrophages under the subendothelial
layer, thereby promoting the seeding process of plaque formation.
Primary hemostasis is defined as the platelet-vessel wall interaction at the site of vascular injury that initiates when flowing platelets recognize (through their receptors) and bind (through the adhesive protein von Willebrand factor) subendothelial
So this endothelial dysfunction, fueled by high oxidative stress secondary to insulin resistance, oxidizes LDL that in turn is targeted by monocytes that then migrate into the subendothelial
space, stimulating macrophages to form foam cells.
LDL particle circulates in plasma, including a fraction, which reenters the circulation from the subendothelial
Upon deposition in the vascular wall, MPO is preferentially situated in the subendothelial
matrix (Baldus et al.
The common inflammatory process affecting multiple organ systems in HSP is that of leukocytoclastic vasculitis triggered by subendothelial
deposition of circulating IgA immune complexes in small arteries and capillaries.
Immunohistochemical studies showed CD31 and CD34 positive cells lining the blood vessels, and subendothelial
layer appeared cells positive for smooth muscle actin [Figure 1]e-[Figure 1]g.
Endothelial adhesion molecules specifically and strongly bind to monocytes and lymphocytes of the blood, that is the basis for subsequent differential migration of these cells in the subendothelial
space of the vessel, induced by specific factors (TNF-[alpha], monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)).
Tumor cell retention in target organs maybe due to size restriction, or it maybe the consequence of selective molecular adhesive interactions with microvascular endothelial cells or the subendothelial
Endothelial dysfunction and subendothelial
monocyte macrophages in hypertension.
Macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and forming foam cells in subendothelial