subdural haematoma


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subdural haematoma

Subdural haematoma, aetiology
Acute SDH
Caused by tearing of communicating veins which traverse the subdural space, or more rarely the sinuses, due to a change of velocity of the head (acceleration or deceleration), often with some rotational movement. The site of original haemorrhage is not usually identified.

Sites
Lateral surface of a cerebral hemisphere, often in a parasagittal position. After blunt impact, the SDH may not be situated under the site of impact. The blood may move following accumulation.

Chronic SDH
May expand due to rebleeding or osmosis of CSF into the centre of the heamatoma; it may also be resorbed or stay the same size. The colour changes from dark red to brown between days 5 and 12.
Cellular infiltration occurs within a few hours; a neomembrane formed adjacent to dura which is a few cells thick in 4 days. Fibroblasts from the membrane enter the clot at 5–8 days.

Day 15: Membrane is present under the clot.
1–3 months: Hyaline appearance to membrane.
6–12 months: Thick, fibrous membrane, like dura.

Trauma
• Rapid acceleration/deceleration (with tearing of  dural bridging veins);
• Minor trauma in setting of cerebral atrophy;
• Birth trauma in neonates.

Dural neoplasms
• Meningiomas
• Metastases

Abnormal haemostasis.

subdural haematoma

A dangerous complication of head injury in which bleeding occurs from tearing of one of the blood vessels under the DURA MATER. The blood gradually accumulates to form an expanding clot which slowly compresses the brain. After recovery of consciousness from the original injury there is typically a relapse into coma some time later. Treatment, which is life-saving, involves opening the skull and tying off the bleeding vessel.
References in periodicals archive ?
He had suffered a subdural haematoma, a significant bleed on the brain that often proves fatal for active participants in a sport the author calls 'showbusiness with blood'.
Both drivers were rushed to Paphos hospital where the officer, 33, was diagnosed with skull fracture, subdural haematoma, and subarachnoid haemorrhage.
During labour, the treating clinicians wrongly took a fetal blood sample from the crown of her head, causing a subdural haematoma in Sophie's brain which resulted in her suffering massive life-limiting injuries.
A CT scan revealed a subdural haematoma - bleeding into the space between the fibrous membrane that covers the brain and the brain itself.
My 15-year-old daughter was hit by a car on her way to school last year and suffered multiple skull fractures and a subdural haematoma and nearly died.
Urgent CT scan of the head showed ' an acute subdural haematoma with mass effect, a midline shift and contusion of the brain substance'.
Urgent CT scan of the head showed an acute subdural haematoma with mass effect, a mid line shift and contusion of the brain substance.
Head banging enthusiasts all over the world take the news with a pinch of salt, but unfortunately, a new research that appeared in the latest issue of The Lancet confirms that headbanging can cause a chronic subdural haematoma, most commonly known as a blood clot in the brain.
A CT scan confirmed there was a brain haemorrhage called a subdural haematoma to each side of the brain.
1), which revealed a large, right fronto-temporo-parietal acute subdural haematoma with effacement of basal cisterns and evidence of mass effect and midline shift.
Experts found a catalogue separate injuries when he was examined by a pathologist - including the subdural haematoma brain injury that eventually killed him.
A pathologist found that Mr Lang, of Plas Tirion, Prestatyn, died from bronchial pneumonia, acute subdural haematoma and congested cardiac failure last October 17.