In domestic animals dog and cat, the mandibular duct leaves the deep surface of the gland, crossing along the face of the occipitomandibular part of the digastric and styloglossus
muscles, and opens at the sublingual caruncle in the mouth, little evident and near the frenulum (ELLENPORT, 1986; SCHALLER et al.
In some cases, an increase in the thickness of the lateral pharyngeal wall is commensurate with the increase in muscle mass in the hyoglossus, styloglossus
, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictor muscles; these increases are linked to the need for excessive effort to overcome the increased muscle laxity in snoring or during apnea.
through cortical bone,[mandible or maxilla] into deep [extrinsic] muscle of tongue [Genioglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus, and styloglossus
, maxillary sinus, skin of face)
muscle arises from the anterior and lateral surface of the styloid process near the apex and descends forward between the branches of the internal and external carotid arteries.
The parapharyngeal space is bounded superiorly by the skull base, anteriorly by the buccinator and pterygoid muscles, posteriorly by the carotid sheath, and medially by the superior constrictor, palatine, and styloglossus