Extrinsic muscles of tongue namely genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus
and palatoglossus are responsible for positioning the tongue in the oral cavity.
In domestic animals dog and cat, the mandibular duct leaves the deep surface of the gland, crossing along the face of the occipitomandibular part of the digastric and styloglossus
muscles, and opens at the sublingual caruncle in the mouth, little evident and near the frenulum (ELLENPORT, 1986; SCHALLER et al., 1999).
It is believed that the suprahyoid electrical activity captured in the task of tongue lift against the palate differed between the posterior and anterior regions not only due to the difference in lingual muscle concentration, but also due to the presence of other muscles recruitment, such as the extrinsic ones of the tongue.The tongue pressure against the palate in the anterior region recruits more the genioglossus muscle than the tongue pressure against the palate in the posterior region, position in which the styloglossus
and palatoglossal muscles are activated.
The styloid process gives origin to stylohyoid, styloglossus
and stylopharyngeus muscles and attachment to the stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments.
In some cases, an increase in the thickness of the lateral pharyngeal wall is commensurate with the increase in muscle mass in the hyoglossus, styloglossus
, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeus, and pharyngeal constrictor muscles; these increases are linked to the need for excessive effort to overcome the increased muscle laxity in snoring or during apnea.
These scholars have identified a complex of muscles that considered key to the mechanism of swallowing, they are: higher pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeal, palatoglossus, posterior intrinsic muscles of the tongue, styloglossus
, stylohyoid, genius-hyoid and mylohyoid.
(Lip) Tumor invades through cortical bone, inferior alveolar nerve, floor of mouth, or skin of face, i.e., chin or nose (Oral cavity) Tumor invades adjacent structures only (e.g., through cortical bone,[mandible or maxilla] into deep [extrinsic] muscle of tongue [Genioglossus, hyoglossus, palatoglossus, and styloglossus
, maxillary sinus, skin of face)
Its muscular attachments include the stylohyoid, styloglossus
, and stylopharyngeus.
The parapharyngeal space is bounded superiorly by the skull base, anteriorly by the buccinator and pterygoid muscles, posteriorly by the carotid sheath, and medially by the superior constrictor, palatine, and styloglossus