Patients who had primary cancer in other sites, recurrent gastric cancer or gastric stump cancer
Gastric resection for peptic ulcer is a well-known risk factor for the development of gastric stump cancer
. One theory attempting to explain this is based on the presence of bile reflux and chronic irritation of gastric mucosa by the pancreatic juice, both of them promoting and activating carcinogenesis .
Even if the irritant effect of biliary reflux on the gastric mucosa is well known, its influence on developing gastric stump ulcer is not as well established as its role in gastric stump cancer
The mechanism of action of gastric stump cancer
is similar to that of primary gastric cancer: a complicated, multifactorial process, with its own unique features.
Specimens were reassessed by two pathologists independently, and the stage of gastric cancer is classified according to the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage system of the Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer.[sup] The selected criteria were the patients harboring advanced gastric adenocarcinoma without distant metastases, and excluded criteria were patients with infiltration of adjacent structures (T4b), distant metastases, and gastric stump cancer
. Also, patients were excluded if they had previously been exposed to any targeted therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or intervention therapy for gastric cancer.
On the other hand, Billroth II and isolated jejunum interposition reconstruction methods are welcomed in the cases occur anastomotic tension while these procedures bring many post-operative complications such as bile reflux, anastomotic ulcer, gastric stump cancer
and so on .