structural gene


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gene

 [jēn]
one of the biologic units of heredity, self-reproducing, and located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome. Genes make up segments of the complex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that controls cellular reproduction and function. There are thousands of genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus; they play an important role in heredity because they control the individual physical, biochemical, and physiologic traits inherited by offspring from their parents. Through the genetic code of DNA they also control the day-to-day functions and reproduction of all cells in the body. For example, the genes control the synthesis of structural proteins and also the enzymes that regulate various chemical reactions that take place in a cell.

The gene is capable of replication. When a cell multiplies by mitosis each daughter cell carries a set of genes that is an exact replica of that of the parent cell. This characteristic of replication explains how genes can carry hereditary traits through successive generations without change.
allelic gene allele.
complementary g's two independent pairs of nonallelic genes, neither of which will produce its effect in the absence of the other.
DCC gene (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) a gene normally expressed in the mucosa of the colon but reduced or absent in a small proportion of patients with colorectal cancer.
dominant gene one that produces an effect (the phenotype) in the organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele. An example of a trait determined by a dominant gene is brown eye color. See also heredity.
histocompatibility gene one that determines the specificity of tissue antigenicity (hla antigens) and thus the compatibility of donor and recipient in tissue transplantation and blood transfusion.
holandric g's genes located on the Y chromosome and appearing only in male offspring.
immune response (Ir) g's genes of the major histocompatibility complex that govern the immune response to individual immunogens.
immune suppressor (Is) g's genes that govern the formation of suppressor T lymphocytes.
immunoglobulin g's the genes coding for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, which are organized in three loci coding for κ light chains, λ light chains, and heavy chains.
K-ras gene a type of oncogene.
lethal gene one whose presence brings about the death of the organism or permits survival only under certain conditions.
major gene a gene whose effect on the phenotype is always evident, regardless of how this effect is modified by other genes.
mutant gene one that has undergone a detectable mutation.
operator gene one serving as a starting point for reading the genetic code, and which, through interaction with a repressor, controls the activity of structural genes associated with it in the operon.
gene pool all of the genes possessed by all of the members of a population that will reproduce.
recessive gene one that produces an effect in the organism only when it is transmitted by both parents, i.e., only when the individual is homozygous. See also heredity.
regulator gene (repressor gene) one that synthesizes repressor, a substance which, through interaction with the operator gene, switches off the activity of the structural genes associated with it in the operon.
sex-linked gene a gene carried on a sex chromosome (X or Y); only X linkage has clinical significance. See X-linked gene.
structural gene one that forms templates for messenger RNA and is thereby responsible for the amino acid sequence of specific polypeptides.
tumor suppressor gene a gene whose function is to limit cell proliferation and loss of whose function leads to cell transformation and tumor growth; called also antioncogene.
X-linked gene a gene carried on the X chromosome; the corresponding trait, whether dominant or recessive, is always expressed in males, who have only one X chromosome. the term “X-linked” is sometimes used synonymously with “sex-linked,” since no genetic disorders have as yet been associated with genes on the Y chromosome.

struc·tur·al gene

a gene that codes for a specific protein or peptide.

structural gene

n.
A gene that encodes the amino acid sequence of a protein.

struc·tur·al gene

(strŭk'shŭr-ăl jēn)
A gene that codes for a specific protein or peptide.

structural gene

A GENE that codes, as most do, for the amino acid sequence of a protein rather than for a regulatory protein.

structural gene

see OPERON MODEL.
References in periodicals archive ?
The differences in pigmentation between brown green and white cotton fiber can be mined by the molecular study of structural genes of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.
Primers for PCR and phylogenetic analysis were designed to target regions of structural genes (premembrane/envelope) and the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) gene (viral polymerase) (Table 2).
There is also the development of a one-step SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay reported for detection and quantification of CHIKV in acute-phase patient serum samples by targeting the E1 structural gene. A linear relationship was obtained between the virus concentration and cycle of threshold (Ct) value over a range of [10.sup.7] to 0.1 plaque forming unit/ ml (PFU/ml).
Bacteriocin-producing strains of interest were subjected to a SYBR green-based real-time PCR array using sets of primers made from the coding sequence for all known LAB bacteriocin structural genes and sequenced at the researchers' university facility.
These knock-outs may affect structural genes and not reveal variation at trans-acting factors that control the expression of major structural genes.
Isolation and characterization of the nitrate reductase structural gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Complete genomic sequences of 8 isolates and structural gene sequences from 22 additional isolates were analyzed.
pombe), an expression vector having the gene and a foreign protein structural gene, a multicloning vector for construction of the expression vector which has the secretion signal gene, and efficient secretory production of the foreign protein structural gene product by S.
However, this region overlaps Amy2, a known structural gene for AA, so there may be multiple QTLs which are too close to be separated in this type of analysis.
Evidence for the inclusion of controlling elements within the structural gene at the waxy locus of maize.
Molecular studies designed to investigate these interactions have demonstrated that the regulatory influence exerted by the vrn complex over LT induced structural gene expression occurs at the transcriptional level in winter cereals (Fowler et al., 1996a) and that genes located on chromosome 5A have a regulatory effect on the expression of LT-induced genes scattered throughout the wheat genomes (Limin et al., 1997; Danyluk et al., 1998).
The resulting colonies harbored plasmid p18MUR050 with an insert of [approximately equal to] 9 kb, which when sequenced showed armA, the structural gene for a 16S rRNA methylase (10).

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