approximatus exhibits considerable variation in body size (Wood 1982) and stridulates
in response to disturbance.
Ants in four subfamilies stridulate
, but others seem silent and don't have recognizable scraping surfaces, Ward notes.
These same active flight muscles are used for sound production in species that stridulate
to generate acoustic signals (Heinrich 1974, Elsner & Popov 1978, Josephson 1984).
Male katydids stridulate
usually with the left tegmen (file-bearing wing) on top of the right one (scraper bearing wing) and sound is radiated mainly by the scraper-bearing tegmen, which possesses specialized membranes enclosed by complex venation: e.
Most male tettigoniids stridulate
(make sound by rubbing cuticular surfaces) with tegmina; they draw a scraper on one forewing along a file of teeth (Fig.
In Sweden adult males stridulate
from July to October, and if the weather is warm or sunny they stridulate
almost continuously during the day at this time.