Reefs of stony corals
Lophelia and Oculina are estimated to be more than 1,000 years old.
By now, taxonomists have recognized 672 species of stony corals
that don't need algal partners and therefore are candidates to live in deep water.
The stony coral
trade is dominated by exports from Southeast Asia and the South Pacific.
Recently, thematically broader studies have been carried out on the distribution of stony corals
and reefs (Steiner 2003), coral diseases (Borger 2003, 2005, Borger & Steiner 2005) and bleaching events (Steiner & Kerr 2008), the abundance and distribution of the echinoid Diadema antillarum (Steiner & Williams 2006a, 2006b), and the distribution dynamics of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea (Willette & Ambrose 2009).
Colony integration during regeneration in the stony coral
are known to transport fluids among polyps through their gastrovascular cavities (Gladfelter, 1983), and the proposed age effect in this study is complicated by the integration of polyps along the distal and proximal portions of coral branches (Soong and Lang, 1992).
Data from line intercept transects (n=74) show that live stony coral
cover, density and relative peripheral exposure of colonies to turf algal/sediment (TAS) mats were inversely related to an inferred sediment stress gradient at 13m.
They associated to a limited extent with cultured isolates (clade A) from the tridacnids Tridacna crocea or Hippopus hippopus, and not at all with a cultured isolate (clade C) from the stony coral
Montipora ve rrucosa, nor with a free-living isolate (clade A) from subtidal sands.
Colonies of the massive stony coral
Favia favus were exposed to different flow speeds and levels of light, and to the addition of zooplankton prey.
New observations on the stony coral
(Scleractinia, Milleporidae, and Stylasteridae) species of Belize (Central America) and Cozumel (Mexico).
Instead, the researchers placed it in a newly created order -- a classification equal to carnivoria in mammals or crocodilia in reptiles -- under the sub-class Hexacorallia, which includes stony corals
, anemones, and black corals.
Rapid assessment of Abrolhos reefs, eastern Brazil (Part 1: stony corals