Wilson, "Biodegradable hybrid stomatocyte
nanomotors for drug delivery," ACS Nano, vol.
(a) Data set Training Validation Test Normal 728 81 203 Echinocyte 226 25 63 Dacrocyte 64 7 18 Schistocyte 546 61 152 Elliptocyte 66 7 18 Acanthocyte 120 13 33 Target cell 523 58 145 Stomatocyte
79 9 22 Spherocyte 173 19 48 Overlap 166 18 46 (a) Cells were randomly distributed 80:20 between training and test sets, respectively.
Caption: Figure 1: Phase images of erythrocytes, taken using LIM (oX, oY: erythrocyte sizes, [micro]m; oZ: optical path difference (OPD), nm): (a) erythrocyte from a healthy donor (discocyte); (b) erythrocyte from a MI patient before treatment (spherocyte); (c) erythrocyte from a SA patient before treatment (stomatocyte
); (d) erythrocyte from a MI patient after treatment (stomatocyte
Moreover, microscopic examination of blood films obtained from naturally infected cases showed presence of parasite and various morphological changes in cells such as stomatocyte
, hypochromia and polychromia.
The spontaneous curvature model, developed by Deuling and Helfrich , described the stomatocyte
and discocyte shapes of the red blood cells for the first time.
are RBCs with a defect in their membranes that causes the cells to assume a mouth or stoma-like shape.
Clinically, [Rh.sub.null] individuals present with a compensated hemolytic anemia, and examination of the peripheral blood smear reveals the characteristic presence of stomatocytes
. Because of the association with RhAG, [Rh.sub.null] cells lack all LW BGAs and have reduced glycophorin B (S and s antigens); yet, expression of the Diego system antigens are unaffected (Band 3).
Liver disease and excess ethanol consumption are common causes of macrocytosis with the blood smear usually showing round rather than oval macrocytes and lacking hypersegmented neutrophils; target cells and stomatocytes
may also be present.
Blood smears show variable numbers of stomatocytes
, but usually less than 10% ; HX is characterized by a propensity to iron overload .
Another set of agents, including cationic amphipaths, low salt, low pH, and cholesterol depletion, induces concave shapes, called stomatocytes
. Further loading with both types of agents induces budding off the membrane, resulting in spherical bodies.
Non-spiculated variants include target cells, ovalocytes and stomatocytes
. Spiculated red cells have at least one pointed projection from the cell surface .
The effect on morphology of erythrocytes by contrast media has also been studied [64, 65], with formation of echinocytes and stomatocytes
observed upon incubation of erythrocytes with contrast media which may have a negative effect on the rheology of the blood .