Therefore, the upper-bounding observer problem can be stated as follows: design a positive observer in the form of (24) such that system (28) is positive and stochastically
stable and satisfies the performance [mathematical expression not reproducible] under zero initial conditions.
Whitney (1947) On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically
larger than the other, The annals of mathematical statistics, vol.
The distribution of contributions of the competitive group first order stochastically
dominates that of the competitive group for the vast majority of the distribution.
xy] it's possible as in the case of Greece to test (5)-(7) whether the features observed are stochastically
The existing methods of stochastically
informed expertise (Rutkauskas 2012b), the techniques of stochastic optimization as well as the methods of stochastic evaluation of losses incurred by the environmental or social components, allow expecting for the success.
16) review the solution to the optimal consumption and saving problem in the basic framework with income fluctuating stochastically
but without retirement.
Generally, both cases are included in the following stochastically
A random variable Y is said to be stochastically
greater than another, X, if Pr(Y [greater than or equal to] a) > Pr(X [greater than or equal to] a) for any a.
Experimental animal grouping: The 109 Wistar rats were stochastically
divided into the following groups: normal group (7 rats); an ulcerative colitis model group (21 rats with 5 deaths); a physiologic saline/negative control group (21 rats, 10 deaths); the Xipayi KuiJiean large dose intervention group (19 rats, 7 deaths); the medium dose intervention group (20 rats, 5 deaths); and the small dose intervention group (21 rats, 5 deaths).
Each individual's fit in a particular population is evaluated; multiple individuals are stochastically
selected (based on their fit) and modified (recombined and randomly mutated) to form a new population.
Rothschild and Stiglitz showed that the mean-preserving spread of a distribution is second-order stochastically
dominated by the (original) distribution.
In general, for a deteriorating system, it is reasonable to assume that the successive working times are stochastically
decreasing while the consecutive repair times after failures are stochastically
increasing, due to the ageing and accumulated wearing many systems.