electrode

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electrode

 [e-lek´trōd]
either of two terminals of an electrically conducting system or cell; specifically, the uninsulated portion of a lead that is in direct contact with the body.
active electrode therapeutic electrode.
calomel electrode one capable of both collecting and giving up chloride ions in neutral or acidic aqueous media, consisting of mercury in contact with mercurous chloride; used as a reference electrode in pH measurements.
depolarizing electrode an electrode that has a resistance greater than that of the portion of the body enclosed in the circuit.
hydrogen electrode an electrode made by depositing platinum black on platinum and then allowing it to absorb hydrogen gas to saturation; used in determination of hydrogen ion concentration.
indifferent electrode one larger than a therapeutic electrode, dispersing electrical stimulation over a larger area.
point electrode an electrode having on one end a metallic point; used in applying current.
therapeutic electrode one smaller than an indifferent electrode, producing electrical stimulation in a concentrated area; called also active electrode.

e·lec·trode

(ē-lek'trōd),
1. Device to record one of the two extremities of an electric circuit; one of the two poles of an electric battery or of the end of the conductors connected thereto.
2. An electrical terminal specialized for a particular electrochemical reaction.
[electro- + G. hodos, way]

electrode

/elec·trode/ (e-lek´trōd) a conductor or medium by which an electric current is conducted to or from any medium, such as a cell, body, solution, or apparatus.
active electrode  in electromyography, an exploring e.
calomel electrode  one capable of both collecting and giving up chloride ions in neutral or acidic aqueous media, consisting of mercury in contact with mercurous chloride; used as a reference electrode in pH measurements.
esophageal electrode , esophageal pill electrode a pill electrode that lodges in the esophagus at the level of the atrium to obtain electrograms and deliver pacing stimuli.
exploring electrode  in electrodiagnosis, that placed nearest to the site of bioelectric activity being recorded, determining the potential in that localized area.
ground electrode  one that is connected to a ground.
indifferent electrode  reference e.
needle electrode  a thin, cylindrical electrode with an outer shaft beveled to a sharp point, enclosing a wire or series of wires.
patch electrode  a tiny electrode with a blunt tip that is used in studies of membrane potentials.
pill electrode  an electrode usually encased in a gelatin capsule and attached to a flexible wire so that it can be swallowed.
recording electrode  that used to measure electric potential change in body tissue; for recording, two electrodes must be used, the exploring e. and the reference e.
reference electrode  an electrode placed at a site remote from the source of recorded activity, so that its potential is assumed to be negligible or constant.
stimulating electrode  one used to apply electric current to tissue.

electrode

[ilek′trōd]
Etymology: Gk, elektron + hodos, way
1 a contact for the induction or detection of electrical activity.
2 a medium for conducting an electrical current from the body to physiological monitoring equipment.

electrode

Cardiac pacing A part of an electric conductor through which a current enters or leaves; uninsulated conductive part of a pacing lead or a unipolar implantable pulse generator's casing which makes electrical contact with tissue; electrodes are used to record the electric activity of contracting muscles; electromyographic data is collected by surface electrodes, fine wire and needle electrodes. See Ring electrode, SilverBullet electrode, Tip electrode.

e·lec·trode

(ĕ-lek'trōd)
1. Device to record one of the two extremities of an electric circuit; one of the two poles of an electric battery or of the end of the conductors connected thereto.
2. An electrical terminal specialized for a particular electrochemical reaction.
[electro- + G. hodos, way]

Electrode

Medium for conducting an electrical current-in this case, platinum wires.

e·lec·trode

(ĕ-lek'trōd)
Device to record one of two extremities of an electric circuit; one of two poles of an electric battery or of the end of the conductors connected thereto.
[electro- + G. hodos, way]

electrode

either of two terminals of an electrically conducting system or cell.

active electrode
therapeutic electrode.
calomel electrode
one capable of both collecting and giving up chloride ions in neutral or acidic aqueous media, consisting of mercury in contact with mercurous chloride; used as a reference electrode in pH measurements.
depolarizing electrode
an electrode that has a resistance greater than that of the portion of the body enclosed in the circuit.
hydrogen electrode
an electrode made by depositing platinum black on platinum and then allowing it to absorb hydrogen gas to saturation; used in determination of hydrogen ion concentration.
indifferent electrode
one larger than a therapeutic electrode, dispersing electrical stimulation over a larger area.
point electrode
an electrode having on one end a metallic point; used in applying current.
therapeutic electrode
one smaller than an indifferent electrode, producing electrical stimulation in a concentrated area; called also active electrode.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the CNTF group, the buccal branch of facial nerve was transected using Meyer neurotome about 4 cm distal to its emergence from the parotid gland, the site of transition being at the mid point of the exposed segment and equidistant from the stimulating electrodes.
In some cases, the thoracic spinal cord, the rostral and caudal poles of the electric organ, or all three, were exposed at one or two locations for implantation of stimulating electrodes.
Caption: Figure 2 TcMEPs involves stimulating electrodes placed into the scalp over the motor cortex and recording the muscle MEP distally using needle electrodes placed over the skin of the target muscles groups.
Position of stimulating electrodes on electrically evoked resting twitch force
However, the differences in the curve fitting between electrical and magnetic stimulation revealed in our study could be due to the larger resting twitches evoked by electrical stimulation implying larger current spread of electrical stimulation especially with the widely space stimulating electrodes.
Implant systems attempt to mimic or reproduce this "tonotopic" encoding by stimulating basally situated electrodes (first turn of the cochlea and lower part of Figure 2) to indicate the presence of high-frequency sounds and by stimulating electrodes at more apical positions (deeper into the ST and ascending along the first and second turns in Figure 2) to indicate the presence of sounds with lower frequencies.
Present electrode arrays for cochlear implants do not support more than four to eight functional channels, even though the number of stimulating electrodes is higher than that.
In conclusion, the in vitro preparation of frog nose and brain is a system which, by offering access for stimulating electrodes to the forebrain nuclei from which these fibers arise, permits us to study the effects of centrifugal ACh release in the OB.
During both median and ulnar sensory conduction recordings, ground electrode was placed between recording and stimulating electrodes.
The study, conducted by a team led by psychiatrist Sidney Kennedy and neurosurgeon Andres Lozano at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada, found that the effects can still be seen six years after implanting stimulating electrodes deep inside the brain.
The voltage from the stimulating electrodes sloped to a plateau, showing a capacity effect.
For example, experiments at Stanford University have shown that certain retinal neurons tend to migrate into cavities between stimulating electrodes.